(5)  An article found on the Internet, author unknown, relating
the basic outline of the story of the life of Jan Janszen Van
Harlaam (1575 – 1641) with additional information on the local
Saadi Dynasty of rulers in Morocco.
Jan Janszoon Van Haarlem, aka Murad Reis The Pirate
King of the Barbary Coast   
c. 1575-c. 1641

About 1575 a child, later christened Jan, was born in the city of Haarlem, North
Holland, the Netherlands. Jan grew up an average Dutch boy, and when he reached
maturity, he married a local girl whose name is unknown. Lysbeth Van Salee was born
to this union in 1596. There were likely other children.

Jan Janszoon Van Haarlem was Jan's full Dutch name: Jan his given or Christian  
name, Jansen his patronymic or patrilineal name, and Van Haarlem his toponymic
surname. Jan was the brief Dutch form for Johannes, or John in English. Janszoon or
Jansen, a patronymic name, according to Dutch custom, indicated who his father was,
literally Jan's son. Sometimes a person's complete name would consist of only two
names such as Jan Janszoon. Some persons, usually the upper class, would have an
additional name, as we have surnames today. His surname was toponymic, that is,
based on his place or origin. Van Haarlem meant that he was from the city of Haarlem.
He was destined to become a pirate king on the Barbary Coast in North Africa. Jan
was known in the English speaking world as Captain John, John Barber and Little John
Ward. His Arabic names were Caid Morato, Morat, Morat Rais, Murad, Murad Reis,
Mutare Reis, Morato Reis and Murat Reis. Reis or rais in Arabic means captain.












Cartagena, Spain









Salé is just north of Rabat on the west coast of Morocco.

About 1600 Jan Janszoon became a merchant seaman, and one of his ports of call
was Cartagena, Murcia, Spain. He married a second wife in Cartagena. She was
probably a Mudejar, a Muslim who belonged to a family employed by a Christian
Spanish noble. Having two wives was permitted by Islam, the Muslim religion. Jan    
had several children by her, one of which was Anthony Jansen Van Salee.
Anthony Jansen's marriage certificate, dated December 15, 1629, in Amsterdam,  
North Holland, the Netherlands, gave him permission to marry onboard the vessel on
the way to New Amsterdam, New Netherland. That certificate, in the Gemeente  
Archief in Amsterdam, states that Anthony Jansen was from Cartagena. I believe he
was born there. A possible reason for being married aboard ship by the captain was
that Anthony's mother in Cartagena was a Muslim, and therefore had raised her child  
in that faith.

Anthony Jansen is believed to be the ancestor of the Vanderbilts, the Whitneys,
Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis and Humphrey Bogart.  Abraham Van Salee was born
about 1602 and Philip Van Salee about 1604, both children of Jan's wife in Cartagena.

Jan Janszoon, Privateer
Jan Janszoon sailed from La Rochelle in 1605 with letters of marque to capture
Spanish pirates from Duinkerken, a town on the coast of France that is also known as
Dunkirk and Dunkerque. In 1559 Spain attacked and conquered it. The port became
one of the three main bases of operation for Spanish privateers in the years   1583-
1609 and 1621-1646 during the 80-year War between the Dutch Republic and Spain.
From 1609 to 1621 a truce existed, but the depredations of the privateers, who turned
to piracy, continued unabated.

1607 Anthony Jansen Van Salee was born at Cartagena, Spain in 1607, and Cornelis
Jansen Van Salee the next year. The Moriscos and Mudejares were expelled from
Spain in 1610, and the Jan Janszoon's Cartagena family certainly moved to Salé,
Morocco, as did most of the others.

Jan Janszoon, Pirate King
In 1618 Jan Janszoon was captured at Lancerote, Canary Islands, by the corsairs,  
and taken to Algiers, Algeria, where he became a corsair himself. His base of
operations was Algiers. He sailed with Van Veenboer, aka Sulayman Rais, who quit    
to shore that same year, and Jan become rais or captain of Sulayman's ship.
Jan Janszoon did not protect the crews of Dutch ships as De Veenboer did. Attacking  
a Spanish ship he flew the Dutch flag, for others he sailed under the red half moon of
the Turks.

Algiers made peace with some of the European nations about 1619, forcing Jan to set
up shop in Salé, Morocco. That same year Salé declared a semi-independent pirate
republic and became the home base for the Sally Rovers. He was elected Admiral of
the corsair fleet at Salé and President of the city. Beginning in 1619 Jan Janszoon built
about 17 fast corsairs.  On a raiding expedition in 1620, a Dutch merchant ship raised
the red flag of no quarter, and bluffed Jan into fleeing for safety.

In 1622 Jan Janszoon is converted to Islam and became a renegado. Sporting the
Moccocan flag and claiming diplomatic immunity, he entered the port of Vere, Zealand,
the Netherlands, for repairs in November. The Dutch brought his wife and children to
the dock to try to convince him to return home. Doubtless he was already supporting
the family. A number of Dutch seamen join Jan Janszoon's crew, contrary  to the
wishes of the Dutch government. Leaving Veere, he attacked several French ships.
About 1623, Sultan Moulay Ziden laid seige to Salé, but failed to capture it. To save
face, Moulay Ziden appointed Jan Janszoon Governor of Salé. Jan married a third time
to a Moorish woman in 1624, the daughter the Sultan, to cement the friendship. This
counted as only two wives because the first was a Christian. He probably had children
from her as well.  1626 Jan Janszoon captured a Spanish ship in 1626, and docked at
Veere, Zealand, to sell it. The next year he sailed out and moved his base of
operations to Algiers. He led a raiding fleet to Reykjavik, the capital city of Iceland the
following year, and returned toAlgiers with booty and 400 slaves for sale.

There was a famine in Morocco in 1629, and he sent two of his sons, Abraham and
Anthony, to Amsterdam, North Holland, the Netherlands. Anthony Van Salee married
Grietje Reyniers onboard a ship in transit to New Amsterdam, New Netherland. In 1635
Jan Janszoon participated in a truce between the Sa'adian Sultan el Walid and Louis
XIII.

The Sack of Baltimore
Jan Janszoon was at the Sack of Baltimore at Cork, Ireland, in 1631, and returned to
Algiers with booty and 108 slaves for sale.

Oh! Some must tug the galley's oar, and some must tend the steed;
This boy will bear a Sheik's chibouk,* and that a Bey's jerreed.*
Oh! Some are in the arsenals, by beauteous Dardanelles;
And some are in the caravan to Mecca's sandy dells.
The maid that Bandon gallant sought is chosen for the Dey:
She's safe - he's dead - she stabbed him in the Midst of his serai;*
And when, to die a death of fire, that noble maid they bore,
She only smiled - O'Driscoll's child - she thought of Baltimore.
From The Sack of Baltimore byThomas Davis
_____
*A chibouk, or chibouque, was a Turkish tobacco pipe with a long stem and a red clay
bowl. A jerreed, or djereed, was a blunt javelin used in military games in Muslem
countries. A serai was a sultan's palace, a seraglio. He was captured by the Maltese
Knights in 1635. Four year later, his son Anthony Van Salee and wife Grietje Reyniers
were expelled from New Amsterdam, finding refuge on Long Island. The next year, Jan
Janszoon escaped from the Knights of Malta after five years of captivity.








Oualidia, Morocco

Jan Janszoon Retired
When Jan returned, the Sultan appointed him Governor of Oualidia in southern
Morocco. Jan Janszoon Van Haarlem served as Governor of the Castle of Maladia, on
the west coast of Morocco from 1640-1641. His daughter Lysbeth Van Haarlem and
her husband visit Jan during those years at the castle. 1641 was the last year of record
for Jan, and he must have died soon after. His body lies in an unmarked grave,
according to Muslim custom.

The Background

The Moors in Spain
When the Christian conquest of Spain was completed in 1492 by King Ferdinand and
Queen Isabella la Catolica, they proceeded to expel all Jews an Moors from the
kingdom. But the Moiscos and Mudejares were allowed to remain. The Moors, were a
nomadic people of North Africa, Berbers, originally inhabitants of Mauretania. They
became Muslims in the 8th century and went to Spain in 711, where they overran the
Visigoths. They spread northward across the Pyrenees into France but were turned
back by Charles Martel in 732. In Southern Spain, however, they established the
Umayyad emirate, later caliphate, at Cordoba. The court grew in wealth, splendor, and
culture. Other centers of Moorish culture were Toledo, Granada, and Seville. The
Moors never established a stable central government. In the 11th centuty the caliphate
fell, and Moorish Spain was captured by the Almoravids, who were supplanted in 1174
by the Almohads. During this period, Christian rulers continued efforts in Northern  
Spain to recapture the south. In 1085 Alfonso VI of Leon and Castile recovered  
Toledo. Cordoba fell in 1236, and one by one the Moorish strongholds surrendered.
The last Moorish city, Granada, fell to Ferdinand V and Isabella I in 1492. Most of the
Moors were driven from Spain, but two groups, the Mudejares and Moriscos,  
remained.

Morocco
Almoravid Dynasty, which ruled Morocco from 1055, ended in 1147 with the rise of the
Almohad Dynasty. Almohad rule ended in 1269 when a Berber tribe, the Marinids, from
the High Plateaus seized control. The Marinid Dynasty ruled until 1465. Piracy began  
to flourish along the Barbary Coast. Coastal cities reaped benefit from the slaves and
treasure taken from merchant ships. The Ottomans protected the corsairs for
centuries, and reigned free in the Mediterranean and along the Atlantic coast until the
Europeans challenged them in the late 18th century with superior weapons. The  
Marinid Dynasty was followed by the Wattasid Dynasty (1465-1549), and then the
Sa'adian Dynasty 1549-1659. During this dynasty, Jan Janszoon was born. He was to
become involved in Sa'adian politics and trade.

The Moriscos
The Moriscos, were Moors who had converted to Christianity after the Christian
reconquest in the 11th to the 15th centuries in Spain. The religion and customs of
Muslims in the Christian parts of Spain were generally respected until the fall of
Granada in 1492. Moors who refused conversion were forcibly baptized. They
unsuccessfully rebelled between 1500 and 1502. Although most Moors accepted
conversion, the others were persecuted by the Inquisition. The Moriscos rose in a
bloody rebellion between 1568 and 1571, which was put down by King Philip II. They
prospered in spite of persecution, but Philip decreed in 1609 their expulsion for both
religious and political reasons. The Moriscos left Spain in 1610 for the Barbary Coast
in North Africa.

The Mudejares
The Mudejares were the Muslims who cooperated with the Christians in the  
reconquest of Spain from its Moorish rulers. They remained after the expulsion in  
1492, and who worked for Christian nobles on their country estates.

The Barbary Coast
Barbary Coast is not an Arabic place name; it was a name given to the coast of
Morocco by the Europeans from 16th century through the 20th century. The word
Barbary is derived from the word Berbers, the name of the ancient inhabitants of the
region.

The countries of northern Africa that lie along the Mediterranean Sea comprise the
Barbary Coast. The countries are Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt. The
name became associated with pirates of the 16th through 19th centuries.

The Town of Salé
from an 18th century account: The twin town of Rabat-Sallee, perhaps the scene of as
much misery as any spot between Agadir and Algiers, is built on the banks of the
Guerrou, (Bou-ragrag) which falls from the mountains of the Zoavais, and divides into
two parts. That on the north part is called by the natives Sela (S'la), but by us Sallee.
 
It is encompassed by good walls, about six fathoms (36 ft) high and two yards and a
half (7 ft 6 ins) thick, composed of clay, red sand and lime. On the top of the walls are
battlements flanked with good towers. The other part of the town which lies on the
south side of the river is called Raval, (Arraval, or, Rabat, 34.0N 7.0W, “the side of the
river on which the Europeans reside”) and occupies a much larger compass than the
former. Within the circumference of this town are abundance of gardens, and a large
field, where they might sow corn enough to serve 1,500 men. Its walls are very ancient;
the natives say they were built by the first Christians who were brought out of Europe
by the generals of Jacob Almanzor, king of Arabia Felix who conquered Spain. On the
south-east quarter stands a high tower called Hasans, which serves as a landmark for
ships to come in. At the foot of this mountain are docks for building ships, and for
  
them to winter in. The ascent of this hill is so gentle that a man may ride on horseback
to the top. “Sallee has two castles. The old stands directly at the mouth of the river
Guerrou. Its walls are built on rocks, and very lofty, sheltering the governor's house,
which joins to them, from any cannon shot. This castle is very irregular. Within this
castle, and before its principal gate, is a high fort, which commands the town. Below,
next to the sea, on the point of the rock facing the bar, is a bastion, mounted with five
pieces of cannon, to secure the vessels which come in to an anchor in the road, and
cover the retreat of the Corsairs, when pursued by the Christians. The new castle is
situated on the south-west of the town. It was built by Murly Archy. There is a
communication from one castle to the other by a high wall flanked with two towers,
 
and built upon arches, under which the people pass when they go to walk upon the
strand (beach). There are in this castle twelve pieces of brass cannon. The chief riches
of this place consist in its piracies, the Sallee Rovers (the Salletines, or Slani, as they
call themselves,) being the most expert and daring of any on the Barbary. The town is
very well described by Mr. H. C. Browne in the English Illustrated Magazine for
February, 1890, pp. 396-402.

The Privateer
A privateer was either a commander or a member of the crew of an armed vessel
commissioned by a government with letters of marque. Letters of marque were given
to a private person to fit out an armed ship and use it to attack, capture and plunder
enemy merchant ships or war vessels in time of war. Captured ships had to be brought
before an admiralty court to ensure they were a legal prize.

The Corsair
A corsair was a pirate who cruised the ocean with an armed vessel, without a
commission from any sovereign state, seizing and plundering merchant vessels or
making booty on land. A corsair was also a piratical vessel, sometimes a privateer.

The Rais
A rais, or reis, was a king or captain who commanded Barbary pirate cruisers and
ruled an African state.

The Renegado
A renegado was one of the most hated of the raises. They were Europeans who had
become leaders of the Turks. From renegado came the terms renegade, a turncoat,
and renege, to go back on one's word. Such a person was a former Christian who
became a pirate, converted to Islam and preyed on European cargo ships from bases
on the North African coast.

Salé, Morocco
Salé was an independent corsair republic, across a small river from Rabat, Morocco.
Salé has also been called Salli, Salee Sallee and Sally. Roving pirates from Salé were
called the Sally Rovers by the British. There were several British sea shanties about
the Rover's fearsome ways.

The Koran
The Religion of Islam, Judaism, Christianity and Islam were the three great
monotheistic religions that came out of the Middle East. Adherents of all three religions
were to be found in the Americas in the 17th and 18th centuries. The followers of Islam
called the Jews and Christians the People of the Book, because they too believed in
the Prophets. The new idea was that Mohammed was the final Prophet, and his
teachings replaced that of the others. The holy book of Islam is the Koran.

The religion of Islam, a word which means surrender to God, is far too complicated to
explain in detail here. However the Five Pillars of Islam will give us a basis for further
study.

The Five Pillars of Islam
1. Profess faith by repeating the phrase, "There is no god but Allah, and Mohammed is
his prophet."
2. Pray five times a day, following special rituals, such as washing beforehand, facing
Mecca, bowing and kneeling.
3. Give alms and show charity to the poor.
4. Practice the ritual fast during the month of Ramadan.
5. Make the pilgrimage to Mecca, the Hajj, at least once if you have the health and
means.

The Moroccan Dynasties
The sultan was the sovereign ruler of the Muslim state. In pre-colonial Morocco sultans
resided in Marrakech, Fès and Meknès, the old imperial capitals. Moulay was a title
borne by the male members of the sharifian dynasty, except for those named
Mohammed, who were always referred to as Sidi Mohammed.
Almoravid Dynasty 1055-1147
Almohad Dynasty 1130-1269
Marinid Dynasty 1269-1465
Wattasid Dynasty 1465-1549
The Sa'adian Dynasty 1549-1659
The Alawite Dynasty 1659-Present

The Sa'adian Dynasty
Sultans of Morocco
1. Abu Abdallah Mohammed II el Mehdi 1540-1557
__________________|________________________
|                                       |   |
2. Abu Mohammed Abdullah I el Ghalib                   |   |
|                                       |   |
3. Abu Abdallah Mohammed III el Mutawakkil 1574-1576   |   |
_______________________________________|   |
|                                           |
4. Abu Merwan Abd el Melik I el Ghazi 1576-1578            |
                                           |
           5. Abul Abbas Ahmed II el Mansur 1578-1603
___________________________________________|
|                                      |
6. Zidan el Nasir 1603-1628 Marrakech                 |
|                                      |
|               7. Mohammed IV el Mamoum 1610-1613 Fès
|                                      |
|               8. Abdullah II 1613-1624 Fès
|___________________________________   |
|                                   |  |
9. Abu Merwan Abd el Melik II 1623-1631 Marrakech  |  |
___________________________________|  |
|                                      |
|              10. Abd el Melik III 1624-1626 Fès
|__________________
|                  |
11. El Walid 1631-1636 Marrakech  |
                  |
   12. Mohammed V el Asghar 1636-1654
                  |
   13. Ahmed III el Abbas 1654-1659
The Alawid Dynasty
Sultans of Morocco
1. Mohammed I ibn es Cherif 1632-1635
__________________|__________________
|                  |                  |
2. Mohammed II 1635-1664          |                  |
                  |                  |
                  |     3. Moulay er Rachid 1664-1672
                  |
  4. Moulay Ismael es Samin 1664-1672
__________________|
|
|__5. Moulay Ahmed ed Dhahabi 1727-1728
|
|__6. Moulay Abd el Melik 1728
|
|__7. Moulay Abdallah 1729-1735 1736 1740-1745
|                     1745-57 1757     |
|                                      |
|__8. Moulay Ali el Araj 1735-1736     |
|                                      |
|__9. Sidi Mohammed 1736-1738          |
|                                      |
|_10. Moulay Moustadi 1738-1740 1759   |
|                                      |
|_11. Moulay Zein el Abdin 1745        |
                   ___________________|
                  |
 12. H. M. Sidi Mohammed III 1757-1790
__________________|
|
|_13. H. M. Moulay El Yazid 1790-1792
|
|_14. H. M. Moulay Hicham 1790-1795 1795-1797
|
|_15. H. M. Moulay Sliman 1796-1822

Dutch-Moroccan Timeline
1549 the Sa'adian dynasty assumes rule in Morocco
1574-1576 Sultan Abu Abdallah Mohammed III el Mutawakkil accedes
1575 Jan Janszoon Van Haarlem born
1576-1578 Sultan Abu Merwan Abd el Melik I el Ghazi accedes
1578-1603 Marrakech and Fès, Sultan Abul Abbas Ahmed el Mansur accedes
1595 aboutt, Jan Janszoon marries a Dutch wife
1596 Lysbeth Van Salee is born
1600 about, Jan Janszoon becomes a merchant seaman
1602 Abraham Van Salee is born
1603-1628 Marrakech, Sultan Ziden en Nasir accedes
1604 Philip Van Salee is born
1605 Jan Janszoon is a privateer and sailed from La Rochelle
1605 Jan Janszoon sails with letters of marque to capture pirates from Duinkerken
1607 Anthony Jansen Van Salee is born at Cartagena, Spain
1608 Cornelis Jansen Van Salee is born
1610-1613 Fès, Sultan Mohammed IV el Mamoum accedes
1610 The Moriscos are expelled from Spain
1610 The Moriscos flee to Salé, Morocco
1613-1624 Fès, Sultan Abdullah II accedes
1618 Jan Janszoon captured at Lancerote, Canary Islands
1618 Jan Janszoon is taken to Algiers, Algeria
1618 Jan Janszoon becomes a corsair based in Algiers
1618 Jan Janszoon sails with Van Veenboer, aka Sulayman Rais
1618 Sulayman Rais temporarily quits to shore
1618 Jan Janszoon becomes rais or captain of Sulayman's ship
1619 about, Algiers makes peace with some of the European nations
1619 Jan Janszoon sets up shop in Salé, Morocco
1619 Salé, Morocco, declared a semi-independent pirate republic
1619 Salé, Morocco becomes the home base for the Sally Rovers
1619 Jan Janszoon elected Admiral of the corsair fleet at Salé
1619 Jan Janszoon is elected the President of Salé
1619 Jan Janszoon builds about 17 fast corsairs
1620 Dutch merchant ship raises red flag of no quarter, bluffs Jan Janszen
1622 Jan Janszoon is converted to Islam
1622 Jan Janszoon becomes a renegado
1622 Jan Janszoon enters the port of Veere, Zealand, Neth., for repairs
1622 November, Jan Janszoon's wife and children paraded at Veere, Holland
1622 a number of Dutch seamen join Jan Janszoon's crew
1622 Jan Janszoon attacks several French ships
1623-1631 Marrakech, Sultan Abu Merwan Abd Melik II accedes
1623 about, the Sultan lays seige to Salé, Morocco, but fails to capture it
1624 Sultan Moulay Ziden appoints Jan Janszoon Governor of Salé
1624 Jan Janszoon marries a third time to a Moorish woman
1624-1626 Fès, Sultan Abd el Melik III accedes
1626 Jan Janszoon captures Spanish ship
1626 Jan Janszoon docks at Veere, Holland, to sell the Spanish ship
1627 Jan Janszoon sails from Veere
1627 Jan Janszoon moves operations to Algiers
1627 Jan Janszoon raided Reykjavik, capital city of Iceland
1627 Jan Janszoon returns to Algiers with booty and slaves for sale
1629 There is a famine in Morocco
1629 Jan Janszoon sends his sons Abraham and Anthony to Amsterdam, Holland
1629 Sultan Moulay el Malek is assassinated
1629 Anthony Van Salee marries Grietje Reyniers
1631 the Alawi dynasty assumes rule in Morocco
1631 Jan Janszoon participates in truce beteen Sultan el Walid and Louis XIII
1631-1635 Sultan Ibn es Cherif accedes
1631-1636 Marrakech, Sultan el Walid accedes
1631 Jan Janszoon leads the Sack of Baltimore, Cork, Ireland
1631 Jan Janszoon returns to Algiers with booty and 200 slaves for sale
1635-1664 Sultan Mohammed II accedes
1635 Jan Janszoon is captured by the Maltese Knights
1636-1654 Marrakech, Sultan Mohammed V el Asghar accedes
1639 Anthony Van Salee and Grietje Reyniers expelled from N. A.
1640 Jan Janszoon escapes from the Knights of Malta after captivity
1640 Jan Janszoon is appointed Governor of Oualidia in southern Morocco
1640-1641 Jan Janszoon Van Haarlem is Gov. of Castle Maladia, west coast
1640 Lysbeth Van Haarlem and husband visit Jan Janszoon at Maladia
1641 after, Jan Janszoon dies, the leas year of record
_____________________________________________________________________________
Jim Wilkinson
jimwilk@hotmail.com