Hubbard Database - Page 4
(5) An article found on the Internet, author unknown, relating the basic outline of the story of
the life of Jan Janszen Van Harlaam (1575 – 1641) with additional information on the local
Saadi Dynasty of rulers in Morocco.
Jan Janszoon Van Haarlem, aka Murad Reis
The Pirate King of the Barbary Coast
c. 1575-c. 1641
Jan Janszoon Van Haarlem
About 1575 a child, later christened Jan, was born in the city of Haarlem, North Holland,
the Netherlands. Jan grew up an average Dutch boy, and when he reached maturity, he
married a local girl whose name is unknown. Lysbeth Van Salee was born to this union in
1596. There were likely other children.
Jan Janszoon Van Haarlem was Jan's full Dutch name: Jan his given or Christian name,
Jansen his patronymic or patrilineal name, and Van Haarlem his toponymic surname. Jan
was the brief Dutch form for Johannes, or John in English. Janszoon or Jansen, a
patronymic name, according to Dutch custom, indicated who his father was, literally
Jan's son. Sometimes a person's complete name would consist of only two names such as
Jan Janszoon. Some persons, usually the upper class, would have an additional name, as
we have surnames today. His surname was toponymic, that is, based on his place or
origin. Van Haarlem meant that he was from the city of Haarlem.
He was destined to become a pirate king on the Barbary Coast in North Africa. Jan was
known in the English speaking world as Captain John, John Barber and Little John Ward.
His Arabic names were Caid Morato, Morat, Morat Rais, Murad, Murad Reis, Mutare
Reis, Morato Reis and Murat Reis. Reis or rais in Arabic means captain.
Salé is just north of Rabat on the west coast of Morocco.
About 1600 Jan Janszoon became a merchant seaman, and one of his ports of call was
Cartagena, Murcia, Spain. He married a second wife in Cartagena. She was probably a
Mudejar, a Muslim who belonged to a family employed by a Christian Spanish noble.
Having two wives was permitted by Islam, the Muslim religion. Jan had several children
by her, one of which was Anthony Jansen Van Salee.
Anthony Jansen's marriage certificate, dated December 15, 1629, in Amsterdam, North
Holland, the Netherlands, gave him permission to marry onboard the vessel on the way
to New Amsterdam, New Netherland. That certificate, in the Gemeente Archief in
Amsterdam, states that Anthony Jansen was from Cartagena. I believe he was born there.
A possible reason for being married aboard ship by the captain was that Anthony's
mother in Cartagena was a Muslim, and therefore had raised her child in that faith.
Anthony Jansen is believed to be the ancestor of the Vanderbilts, the Whitneys,
Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis and Humphrey Bogart.
Abraham Van Salee was born about 1602 and Philip Van Salee about 1604, both children
of Jan's wife in Cartagena.
Jan Janszoon, Privateer
Jan Janszoon sailed from La Rochelle in 1605 with letters of marque to capture Spanish
pirates from Duinkerken, a town on the coast of France that is also known as Dunkirk
and Dunkerque. In 1559 Spain attacked and conquered it. The port became one of the
three main bases of operation for Spanish privateers in the years 1583-1609 and 1621-
1646 during the 80-year War between the Dutch Republic and Spain. From 1609 to 1621
a truce existed, but the depredations of the privateers, who turned to piracy, continued
1607 Anthony Jansen Van Salee was born at Cartagena, Spain in 1607, and Cornelis
Jansen Van Salee the next year. The Moriscos and Mudejares were expelled from Spain
in 1610, and the Jan Janszoon's Cartagena family certainly moved to Salé, Morocco, as
did most of the others.
Jan Janszoon, Pirate King
In 1618 Jan Janszoon was captured at Lancerote, Canary Islands, by the corsairs, and
taken to Algiers, Algeria, where he became a corsair himself. His base of operations was
Algiers. He sailed with Van Veenboer, aka Sulayman Rais, who quit to shore that same
year, and Jan become rais or captain of Sulayman's ship.
Jan Janszoon did not protect the crews of Dutch ships as De Veenboer did. Attacking a
Spanish ship he flew the Dutch flag, for others he sailed under the red half moon of the
Algiers made peace with some of the European nations about 1619, forcing Jan to set up
shop in Salé, Morocco. That same year Salé declared a semi-independent pirate republic
and became the home base for the Sally Rovers. He was elected Admiral of the corsair
fleet at Salé and President of the city. Beginning in 1619 Jan Janszoon built about 17 fast
corsairs. On a raiding expedition in 1620, a Dutch merchant ship raised the red flag of no
quarter, and bluffed Jan into fleeing for safety.
In 1622 Jan Janszoon is converted to Islam and became a renegado. Sporting the
Moccocan flag and claiming diplomatic immunity, he entered the port of Veere, Zealand,
the Netherlands, for repairs in November. The Dutch brought his wife and children to the
dock to try to convince him to return home. Doubtless he was already supporting the
family. A number of Dutch seamen join Jan Janszoon's crew, contrary to the wishes of
the Dutch government. Leaving Veere, he attacked several French ships.
About 1623, Sultan Moulay Ziden laid seige to Salé, but failed to capture it. To save
face, Moulay Ziden appointed Jan Janszoon Governor of Salé. Jan married a third time to
a Moorish woman in 1624, the daughter the Sultan, to cement the friendship. This
counted as only two wives because the first was a Christian. He probably had children
from her as well. 1626 Jan Janszoon captured a Spanish ship in 1626, and docked at
Veere, Zealand, to sell it. The next year he sailed out and moved his base of operations to
Algiers. He led a raiding fleet to Reykjavik, the capital city of Iceland the following year,
and returned toAlgiers with booty and 400 slaves for sale.
There was a famine in Morocco in 1629, and he sent two of his sons, Abraham and
Anthony, to Amsterdam, North Holland, the Netherlands. Anthony Van Salee married
Grietje Reyniers onboard a ship in transit to New Amsterdam, New Netherland. In 1635
Jan Janszoon participated in a truce between the Sa'adian Sultan el Walid and Louis XIII.
The Sack of Baltimore
Jan Janszoon was at the Sack of Baltimore at Cork, Ireland, in 1631, and returned to
Algiers with booty and 108 slaves for sale.
Oh! Some must tug the galley's oar, and some must tend the steed;
This boy will bear a Sheik's chibouk,* and that a Bey's jerreed.*
Oh! Some are in the arsenals, by beauteous Dardanelles;
And some are in the caravan to Mecca's sandy dells.
The maid that Bandon gallant sought is chosen for the Dey:
She's safe - he's dead - she stabbed him in the Midst of his serai;*
And when, to die a death of fire, that noble maid they bore,
She only smiled - O'Driscoll's child - she thought of Baltimore.
From The Sack of Baltimore byThomas Davis
*A chibouk, or chibouque, was a Turkish tobacco pipe with a long stem and a red clay
bowl. A jerreed, or djereed, was a blunt javelin used in military games in Muslem
countries. A serai was a sultan's palace, a seraglio.
He was captured by the Maltese Knights in 1635. Four year later, his son Anthony Van
Salee and wife Grietje Reyniers were expelled from New Amsterdam, finding refuge on
Long Island. The next year, Jan Janszoon escaped from the Knights of Malta after five
years of captivity.
Jan Janszoon Retired
When Jan returned, the Sultan appointed him Governor of Oualidia in southern Morocco.
Jan Janszoon Van Haarlem served as Governor of the Castle of Maladia, on the west
coast of Morocco from 1640-1641.
His daughter Lysbeth Van Haarlem and her husband visit Jan during those years at the
castle. 1641 was the last year of record for Jan, and he must have died soon after. His
body lies in an unmarked grave, according to Muslim custom.
The Moors in Spain
When the Christian conquest of Spain was completed in 1492 by King Ferdinand and
Queen Isabella la Catolica, they proceeded to expel all Jews an Moors from the kingdom.
But the Moiscos and Mudejares were allowed to remain.
The Moors, were a nomadic people of North Africa, Berbers, originally inhabitants of
Mauretania. They became Muslims in the 8th century and went to Spain in 711, where
they overran the Visigoths. They spread northward across the Pyrenees into France but
were turned back by Charles Martel in 732. In Southern Spain, however, they established
the Umayyad emirate, later caliphate, at Cordoba. The court grew in wealth, splendor,
and culture. Other centers of Moorish culture were Toledo, Granada, and Seville. The
Moors never established a stable central government. In the 11th centuty the caliphate
fell, and Moorish Spain was captured by the Almoravids, who were supplanted in 1174
by the Almohads. During this period, Christian rulers continued efforts in Northern Spain
to recapture the south. In 1085 Alfonso VI of Leon and Castile recovered Toledo.
Cordoba fell in 1236, and one by one the Moorish strongholds surrendered. The last
Moorish city, Granada, fell to Ferdinand V and Isabella I in 1492. Most of the Moors
were driven from Spain, but two groups, the Mudejares and Moriscos, remained.
Almoravid Dynasty, which ruled Morocco from 1055, ended in 1147 with the rise of the
Almohad Dynasty. Almohad rule ended in 1269 when a Berber tribe, the Marinids, from
the High Plateaus seized control. The Marinid Dynasty ruled until 1465. Piracy began to
flourish along the Barbary Coast. Coastal cities reaped benefit from the slaves and
treasure taken from merchant ships. The Ottomans protected the corsairs for centuries,
and reigned free in the Mediterranean and along the Atlantic coast until the Europeans
challenged them in the late 18th century with superior weapons. The Marinid Dynasty
was followed by the Wattasid Dynasty (1465-1549), and then the Sa'adian Dynasty 1549-
1659. During this dynasty, Jan Janszoon was born. He was to become involved in
Sa'adian politics and trade.
The Moriscos, were Moors who had converted to Christianity after the Christian
reconquest in the 11th to the 15th centuries in Spain. The religion and customs of
Muslims in the Christian parts of Spain were generally respected until the fall of Granada
in 1492. Moors who refused conversion were forcibly baptized. They unsuccessfully
rebelled between 1500 and 1502. Although most Moors accepted conversion, the others
were persecuted by the Inquisition. The Moriscos rose in a bloody rebellion between
1568 and 1571, which was put down by King Philip II. They prospered in spite of
persecution, but Philip decreed in 1609 their expulsion for both religious and political
reasons. The Moriscos left Spain in 1610 for the Barbary Coast in North Africa.
The Mudejares were the Muslims who cooperated with the Christians in the reconquest
of Spain from its Moorish rulers. They remained after the expulsion in 1492, and who
worked for Christian nobles on their country estates.
The Barbary Coast
Barbary Coast is not an Arabic place name; it was a name given to the coast of Morocco
by the Europeans from 16th century through the 20th century. The word Barbary is
derived from the word Berbers, the name of the ancient inhabitants of the region.
The countries of northern Africa that lie along the Mediterranean Sea comprise the
Barbary Coast. The countries are Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt. The
name became associated with pirates of the 16th through 19th centuries.
The Town of Salé
from an 18th century account
The twin town of Rabat-Sallee, perhaps the scene of as much misery as any spot
between Agadir and Algiers, is built on the banks of the Guerrou, (Bou-ragrag) which
falls from the mountains of the Zoavais, and divides into two parts. That on the north
part is called by the natives Sela (S'la), but by us Sallee. It is encompassed by good walls,
about six fathoms (36 ft) high and two yards and a half (7 ft 6 ins) thick, composed of
clay, red sand and lime. On the top of the walls are battlements flanked with good
towers. The other part of the town which lies on the south side of the river is called
Raval, (Arraval, or, Rabat, 34.0N 7.0W, “the side of the river on which the Europeans
reside”) and occupies a much larger compass than the former. Within the circumference
of this town are abundance of gardens, and a large field, where they might sow corn
enough to serve 1,500 men. Its walls are very ancient; the natives say they were built by
the first Christians who were brought out of Europe by the generals of Jacob Almanzor,
king of Arabia Felix who conquered Spain. On the south-east quarter stands a high tower
called Hasans, which serves as a landmark for ships to come in. At the foot of this
mountain are docks for building ships, and for them to winter in. The ascent of this hill is
so gentle that a man may ride on horseback to the top. “Sallee has two castles. The old
stands directly at the mouth of the river Guerrou. Its walls are built on rocks, and very
lofty, sheltering the governor's house, which joins to them, from any cannon shot. This
castle is very irregular. Within this castle, and before its principal gate, is a high fort,
which commands the town. Below, next to the sea, on the point of the rock facing the
bar, is a bastion, mounted with five pieces of cannon, to secure the vessels which come
in to an anchor in the road, and cover the retreat of the Corsairs, when pursued by the
Christians. The new castle is situated on the south-west of the town. It was built by
Murly Archy. There is a communication from one castle to the other by a high wall
flanked with two towers, and built upon arches, under which the people pass when they
go to walk upon the strand (beach). There are in this castle twelve pieces of brass
cannon. The chief riches of this place consist in its piracies, the Sallee Rovers (the
Salletines, or Slani, as they call themselves,) being the most expert and daring of any on
the Barbary. The town is very well described by Mr. H. C. Browne in the English
Illustrated Magazine for February, 1890, pp. 396-402.
A privateer was either a commander or a member of the crew of an armed vessel
commissioned by a government with letters of marque. Letters of marque were given to a
private person to fit out an armed ship and use it to attack, capture and plunder enemy
merchant ships or war vessels in time of war. Captured ships had to be brought before an
admiralty court to ensure they were a legal prize.
A corsair was a pirate who cruised the ocean with an armed vessel, without a commission
from any sovereign state, seizing and plundering merchant vessels or making booty on
land. A corsair was also a piratical vessel, sometimes a privateer.
A rais, or reis, was a king or captain who commanded Barbary pirate cruisers and ruled
an African state.
A renegado was one of the most hated of the raises. They were Europeans who had
become leaders of the Turks. From renegado came the terms renegade, a turncoat, and
renege, to go back on one's word. Such a person was a former Christian who became a
pirate, converted to Islam and preyed on European cargo ships from bases on the North
Salé was an independent corsair republic, across a small river from Rabat, Morocco. Salé
has also been called Salli, Salee Sallee and Sally. Roving pirates from Salé were called the
Sally Rovers by the British. There were several British sea shanties about the Rover's
The Religion of Islam
Judaism, Christianity and Islam were the three great monotheistic religions that came out
of the Middle East. Adherents of all three religions were to be found in the Americas in
the 17th and 18th centuries. The followers of Islam called the Jews and Christians the
People of the Book, because they too believed in the Prophets. The new idea was that
Mohammed was the final Prophet, and his teachings replaced that of the others. The holy
book of Islam is the Koran.
The religion of Islam, a word which means surrender to God, is far too complicated to
explain in detail here. However the Five Pillars of Islam will give us a basis for further
The Five Pillars of Islam
1. Profess faith by repeating the phrase, "There is no god but Allah, and Mohammed is
2. Pray five times a day, following special rituals, such as washing beforehand, facing
Mecca, bowing and kneeling.
3. Give alms and show charity to the poor.
4. Practice the ritual fast during the month of Ramadan.
5. Make the pilgrimage to Mecca, the Hajj, at least once if you have the health and
A verse from the Koran
The Moroccan Dynasties
The sultan was the sovereign ruler of the Muslim state. In pre-colonial Morocco sultans
resided in Marrakech, Fès and Meknès, the old imperial capitals. Moulay was a title
borne by the male members of the sharifian dynasty, except for those named
Mohammed, who were always referred to as Sidi Mohammed.
Almoravid Dynasty 1055-1147
Almohad Dynasty 1130-1269
Marinid Dynasty 1269-1465
Wattasid Dynasty 1465-1549
The Sa'adian Dynasty 1549-1659
The Alawite Dynasty 1659-Present
The Sa'adian Dynasty
Sultans of Morocco
1. Abu Abdallah Mohammed II el Mehdi 1540-1557
| | |
2. Abu Mohammed Abdullah I el Ghalib | |
| | |
3. Abu Abdallah Mohammed III el Mutawakkil 1574-1576 | |
4. Abu Merwan Abd el Melik I el Ghazi 1576-1578 |
5. Abul Abbas Ahmed II el Mansur 1578-1603
6. Zidan el Nasir 1603-1628 Marrakech |
| 7. Mohammed IV el Mamoum 1610-1613 Fès
| 8. Abdullah II 1613-1624 Fès
| | |
9. Abu Merwan Abd el Melik II 1623-1631 Marrakech | |
| 10. Abd el Melik III 1624-1626 Fès
11. El Walid 1631-1636 Marrakech |
12. Mohammed V el Asghar 1636-1654
13. Ahmed III el Abbas 1654-1659
The Alawid Dynasty
Sultans of Morocco
1. Mohammed I ibn es Cherif 1632-1635
| | |
2. Mohammed II 1635-1664 | |
| 3. Moulay er Rachid 1664-1672
4. Moulay Ismael es Samin 1664-1672
|__5. Moulay Ahmed ed Dhahabi 1727-1728
|__6. Moulay Abd el Melik 1728
|__7. Moulay Abdallah 1729-1735 1736 1740-1745
| 1745-57 1757 |
|__8. Moulay Ali el Araj 1735-1736 |
|__9. Sidi Mohammed 1736-1738 |
|_10. Moulay Moustadi 1738-1740 1759 |
|_11. Moulay Zein el Abdin 1745 |
12. H. M. Sidi Mohammed III 1757-1790
|_13. H. M. Moulay El Yazid 1790-1792
|_14. H. M. Moulay Hicham 1790-1795 1795-1797
|_15. H. M. Moulay Sliman 1796-1822
1549 the Sa'adian dynasty assumes rule in Morocco
1574-1576 Sultan Abu Abdallah Mohammed III el Mutawakkil accedes
1575 Jan Janszoon Van Haarlem born
1576-1578 Sultan Abu Merwan Abd el Melik I el Ghazi accedes
1578-1603 Marrakech and Fès, Sultan Abul Abbas Ahmed el Mansur accedes
1595 aboutt, Jan Janszoon marries a Dutch wife
1596 Lysbeth Van Salee is born
1600 about, Jan Janszoon becomes a merchant seaman
1602 Abraham Van Salee is born
1603-1628 Marrakech, Sultan Ziden en Nasir accedes
1604 Philip Van Salee is born
1605 Jan Janszoon is a privateer and sailed from La Rochelle
1605 Jan Janszoon sails with letters of marque to capture pirates from Duinkerken
1607 Anthony Jansen Van Salee is born at Cartagena, Spain
1608 Cornelis Jansen Van Salee is born
1610-1613 Fès, Sultan Mohammed IV el Mamoum accedes
1610 The Moriscos are expelled from Spain
1610 The Moriscos flee to Salé, Morocco
1613-1624 Fès, Sultan Abdullah II accedes
1618 Jan Janszoon captured at Lancerote, Canary Islands
1618 Jan Janszoon is taken to Algiers, Algeria
1618 Jan Janszoon becomes a corsair based in Algiers
1618 Jan Janszoon sails with Van Veenboer, aka Sulayman Rais
1618 Sulayman Rais temporarily quits to shore
1618 Jan Janszoon becomes rais or captain of Sulayman's ship
1619 about, Algiers makes peace with some of the European nations
1619 Jan Janszoon sets up shop in Salé, Morocco
1619 Salé, Morocco, declared a semi-independent pirate republic
1619 Salé, Morocco becomes the home base for the Sally Rovers
1619 Jan Janszoon elected Admiral of the corsair fleet at Salé
1619 Jan Janszoon is elected the President of Salé
1619 Jan Janszoon builds about 17 fast corsairs
1620 Dutch merchant ship raises red flag of no quarter, bluffs Jan Janszen
1622 Jan Janszoon is converted to Islam
1622 Jan Janszoon becomes a renegado
1622 Jan Janszoon enters the port of Veere, Zealand, Neth., for repairs
1622 November, Jan Janszoon's wife and children paraded at Veere, Holland
1622 a number of Dutch seamen join Jan Janszoon's crew
1622 Jan Janszoon attacks several French ships
1623-1631 Marrakech, Sultan Abu Merwan Abd Melik II accedes
1623 about, the Sultan lays seige to Salé, Morocco, but fails to capture it
1624 Sultan Moulay Ziden appoints Jan Janszoon Governor of Salé
1624 Jan Janszoon marries a third time to a Moorish woman
1624-1626 Fès, Sultan Abd el Melik III accedes
1626 Jan Janszoon captures Spanish ship
1626 Jan Janszoon docks at Veere, Holland, to sell the Spanish ship
1627 Jan Janszoon sails from Veere
1627 Jan Janszoon moves operations to Algiers
1627 Jan Janszoon raided Reykjavik, capital city of Iceland
1627 Jan Janszoon returns to Algiers with booty and slaves for sale
1629 There is a famine in Morocco
1629 Jan Janszoon sends his sons Abraham and Anthony to Amsterdam, Holland
1629 Sultan Moulay el Malek is assassinated
1629 Anthony Van Salee marries Grietje Reyniers
1631 the Alawi dynasty assumes rule in Morocco
1631 Jan Janszoon participates in truce beteen Sultan el Walid and Louis XIII
1631-1635 Sultan Ibn es Cherif accedes
1631-1636 Marrakech, Sultan el Walid accedes
1631 Jan Janszoon leads the Sack of Baltimore, Cork, Ireland
1631 Jan Janszoon returns to Algiers with booty and 200 slaves for sale
1635-1664 Sultan Mohammed II accedes
1635 Jan Janszoon is captured by the Maltese Knights
1636-1654 Marrakech, Sultan Mohammed V el Asghar accedes
1639 Anthony Van Salee and Grietje Reyniers expelled from N. A.
1640 Jan Janszoon escapes from the Knights of Malta after captivity
1640 Jan Janszoon is appointed Governor of Oualidia in southern Morocco
1640-1641 Jan Janszoon Van Haarlem is Gov. of Castle Maladia, west coast
1640 Lysbeth Van Haarlem and husband visit Jan Janszoon at Maladia
1641 after, Jan Janszoon dies, the leas year of record