(3) A collection of articles found on the Internet describing the
history of the Hubbard Family in America. Included is an article
written by William S. Hubbart in 1998outlining the story of a
direct ancestor, James Hubbard and his descendants.
Samuel Hubbard & Tacy Cooper
Husband: Samuel Hubbard
Born: 1610 in Mendelsham, England
Married: 04 Jan 1637/38 2
Died: after 1688 in Newport, Newport Co., RI
Wife: Tacy Cooper
Born: 1608 in England 1
Died: after 1688 in Newport, Newport Co., RI
01 (F): Ruth Hubbard
Born: 10 Sep 1640
02 (F): Naomi Hubbard
Born: about 1642
Died: 05 May 1643
03 (F): Rachel Hubbard
Born: 07 Mar 1642/43
04 (M): Samuel Hubbard
Born: 25 Mar 1644
Died: 25 Mar 1644
05 (F): Bethia Cooper Hubbard
Born: 29 Dec 1646 in Springfield, Hampden Co., MA 3
Died: 17 Apr 1707 in Westerly, Washington Co., RI 4
Spouses: Joseph Clarke
06 (M): Samuel Hubbard
Born: about 1650
Died: 20 Jan 1670/71
One Thousand years of Hubbard History: 866 - 1895
Published by Harlan Page Hubbard, New York. 1895.
Samuel arrived in Salem, Massachusetts, in October, 1633, and probably came in the
ship James, Grant, master, which left Gravesend, England, late in August, 1633, and
arrived in Massachusetts Bay October 10, 1633. He says in his Diary,(*) "I was born
of good parents. My Mother brought me up in the fear of the Lord, in Mendlesham, in
catechiseing me and hearing choice ministers."
In 1635, he moved to Watertown, Massachusetts, where he joined the church. This
same year he went to Dorchester (Windsor), Ct., with the overland migrators. He was
married there by Mr. Ludlow to Tacy. She had brothers Robert, of Yarmouth, Norfolk,
and John of London, Eng.
Samuel and Tacy went to Wethersfield, Ct., in 1637, and May 10, 1639, moved up the
Connecticut River to Springfield, MA. In Dec. 1640 "Samuel Hubbard is alsoe
appoynted by a generall vote to keepe an Ordinary [Inn] for ye entertaynment of
They left for Fairfield, Ct., in 1647, though staying there but a short time on account of
church disagreements. Samuel was now with his wife imbibing freely and preaching
ardently the doctrines of Anabaptism. He says in his diary: "God having enlightened
both (but mostly my wife) into his holy ordinance of baptising only of visible believers,
and being very zealous for it, she was mostly struck at, and answered two terms
publicly, where I was said to be as bad as she, and sore threatened with
imprisonment to Hartford jail, if not to renounce it or to remove: that scripture came
into our minds:
"If they persecute you in one place flee to another;" and so we did 2 day of October,
1648. We went for Rhode Island and arrived there the 12 day. I and my wife upon our
manifestation of our faith were baptised by brother Joseph Clarke, 3 day of
Samuel was a zealous Baptist and public religous disputant. For twenty-three years
he belonged to the First Baptist Church of Newport, which sent him August 7, 1651,
to Boston "to visit the bretherin who was imprisoned in Boston jayl for witnessing the
truth of baptising believers only, viz: Brothers John Clarke, Obadiah Holmes, and John
Crandall." In 1657 he went with Holmes on a preaching tour on Long Island, and in
1664 he was appointed General Solicitor of the Colony.
In about 1665, a Seventh Day Baptist missionary and his wife arrived in Newport from
London; the first convent to the Sabbath in America being Tacy. Samuel and Tacy, one
daughter, and four other persons formed the first Seventh Day Baptist Church in
America in 1671. Samuel reported that in 1678 there were 37 "Sabbatarians" in
America; 20 in Newport, 7 at Westerly (also known as Hopkinton) and 10 at New
London, Connecticut. Three years later the number of members reached 51; of this
group two were Indians. In 1675 in his diary he refers to a "testament of my
grandfather Cocke's, printed in 1549, which he [Cocke] hid in his bed straw lest it
should be found and burned in Queen Mary's days." He died between 1688 and 1692,
and his wife after 1697, but no traces of their burial places have been found.
1 Websites, "1000 years of Hubbard History."
2 Quality: 3.
3 Tacy Cooper, who was born in England in 1608 and came to Dorchester,
Mass, June 9, 1634 and to Connecticut (Windsor) in 1635. She had
brothers, Robert of Yarmouth, Norfolk and John of London,
England. Robert returned to England in 1644.
5 James Savage, Genealogical Dictionary of the First Settlers of New England,
6 He and w. Tacey m. 4 Jan. 1638.
7 New England Historic Genealogical Society, RECORDS OF SPRINGFIELD,
MASS.-(Communicated by Charles H. S. Davis of Springfield.)
8 Quality: 3.
9 Bethiah Hubbert ye [sone] of Samuell Hubbert borne 10 mon. 29 day 1646.
11 James Savage, Genealogical Dictionary of the First Settlers of New England,
12 His w. d 17 Apr. 1707.
Sgt James Hubbard of Gravesend; An English
Settlement among the Dutch in New Netherlands
1st Sgt Wm. S. Hubbartt, U.E. - Guam 1998 All rights reserved
The Dutch arrived in America in 1614, when their sea power surpassed the
French and rivaled the English. Having gained independence from Catholic Spain late
in the previous century, Holland prospered in commerce and naval power. They first
established a trading post, specializing in furs, at Fort Orange, what would later be
known as Albany New York. This venture failed, but in 1624 the Dutch were back and
sealed a deal with the Iroquois tribe for exclusive trade, in exchange for guns. New
Netherlands was the name given to the new area of Dutch settlement that May. Two
years later, in the summer of 1626, Peter Minuit, on behalf of the Dutch West India
Company, purchased Manhattan Island from the ‚“Man-a-hat-a Indians for goods
worth about $24; and thus began the town and fort at New Amsterdam on the
southern tip of that island. New Amsterdam was a company town, run by and for the
Dutch West Indies Company. While more tolerant than other colonies, this colony
existed for the financial benefit of “the company.? While the Dutch welcomed almost
anyone who would agree to settle the wild land (and abide by the “companys laws,
there was not a lot of tolerance for religious extremism, free speech, or democratic
practices. Dissenters from the officially sponsored Dutch Reformed Church were
frowned upon and Quakers were at times brutally abused. Under an increasingly
restless populace the Dutch administrators did however, eventually allow for some
internal government of the outlying villages.
By the time William Kieft replaced Wouter Van Twiller in 1638, New Amsterdam
had fallen into disrepair. There were gullies throughout the walls and men no
longer used the gates. Cannons were useless and buildings crumbling. The city
remained however a colorful town that drew an interesting mixes of peoples. The
colony earned the reputation as a lawless place occupied by illiterate men whose
main occupation was quick profit. Smuggling, illegal trading and skimming off profits
from the Companys fur trade was commonplace. Kieft was energetic and took steps
to reverse the decay of the Van Twiller administration. Funds were limited but even so
he organized a regular police watch, built gallows, and strictly enforced existing laws.
In 1640, eighteen languages were being spoken on the streets of New Amsterdam. It
was however, never as large or populous as many of the other European colonial
communities springing up throughout the American frontier. New Amsterdam had
only 1,500 people and the entire colony no more than 5,000.
It's no wonder, that after escaping religious persecution of England and eventually
finding more of the same in New England, the Englishmen settled among these
Dutch. Good soil, mild climate and tolerance offered in “Niew Netherlands made for
a good draw. But, the main attraction was the relaxed laws and liberal Dutch
attitudes toward _expression of religion and mind.
The English Village of Gravesend: This is where the Hubbard family actually took
root in America. Needing immigrants to build their fledgling colony, in 1629, the Dutch
West Indies Co. affected a plan to solve this problem. A candidate with fifty potential
settlers would be awarded a huge estate of land - a patroon. The immigrants had to
agree to live and work on their estates under Dutch guidelines and rules, in what
amounted to near servitude to the Dutch in exchange for land. The Dutch in effect
became feudal barons. This effort failed and was discontinued by 1646. Two years
after Kieft took over as Governor-General, violence flared up over destruction of
cornfields on Staten Island by the Dutch.
James Hubbard's early life continued to be a turbulent one. He arrived in this Dutch
Colony from Massachusetts in 1643. Its said he “Came to Gravesend with Lady
Moody, John Tilton, and others to enjoy their (peculiar) religious views. Its clear that
James Hubbard played a key role in establishing this English settlement among the
Dutch. As one of the original patentees, he and several of his fellow countrymen
bonded together against the harsh conditions, winters, Indian attacks, and later,
conflict with the Dutch Governors iron-fisted rule, to forge a settlement which
eventually grew to be part of one of the largest cities in the world.
The Indians found intolerable, the habit of the Dutch cattle to stray from their
unfenced fields and destroy their small cornfields. They responded to these intrusions
by slaying the beasts in a sporting manner. This of course, enraged the Dutch who
saw no need to fence their cattle until it was necessary (which meant until they had
white neighbors). In one instance, in the summer of 1640, some company employees
traveling to the Delaware settlement poached some pigs on DeVries' land located on
Staten Island, and unobserved, went on their way. The blame went to the nearby
Raritan tribe camped just over Author Kill in New Jersey. Governor Kieft then sent 50
armed men to avenge the crime and make an example of the savages. They
attacked the first village they came to, massacred a number of Indians and burned
their lodges and crops. In response, the Raritan swarmed onto Staten Island,
slaughtered several of the DeVries people and wiped out the plantation. In turn a
wampum, bounty was offered for each Raritan head brought forth. Fueled by Kieft's
policies, the colony would suffer problems with the natives for some years to come.
The Lady Deborah Moody seems to have been the main influence in getting this
village started. After removing herself from Massachusetts, she settled in 1643, with
her son and “associates in New Netherlands. They couldn't have come at a worse
time, as the colony was plagued with Indian problems and often attacked. Upon
arriving, she was pleased to find a number of her own countrymen who sought refuge
at the fort during recent Indian confrontations. One of these was Nicolas Stillwell,
whose experience with religions persecution was similar to her own.
In February 1643, New Netherlands Governor Kiefts forces attacked Tapan Indians
at Pavonia. The Indians rose up and killed numerous settlers. The survivors were
forced to flee to Manhattan for their safety. Because of the Dutch harsh policies
towards the Indians, a general war ensued, forcing Stillwell and others to flee his
stone house (the center of the English settlement) at Hopton to the safety of the
fort. Eleven tribes rose up against the white devils and killed every white man they
could lay their hands on! Kieft saw no alternative but to take into the fort all the
panic-stricken inhabitants of the colony for two months and place them in the service
of the company, protecting them until the crisis passed. A truce was finally arranged
While at Fort Amsterdam Lady Moody's party and Stillwell's were invited by the
Dutch governor to select from unappropriated lands a location for a new settlement.
A committee was appointed; a site selected, and a patent for lands secured on the
western end of Long Island that summer of 1643. The survey party selected a place
well suited for settlement called “the cove, a sheltered location across from
Manhattan and the town of New Amsterdam. It was a good area for farming and for
cattle to graze. The land was generally level and wooded with small sand hills along
the coast. There were salt meadows interspersed closer to the water. Nearby was
Coney Island, separated from the town by a small creek. It was decided to call this
new town Gravesend, and it was here that the original 39 “patentees” settled. Among
them were; Sergeant James Hubbard, John Tilton; William, John and James Bowne;
James Grover; Richard Stout; Nicolas Stillwell; Richard Gibbins; John Ruckman;
Samuel Spicer; William Golding; and William Compton. George Baxter later joined
this group of settlers and was appointed as interpreter.
The land where Gravesend stands, originally belonged to the Canarsie Indians; and
to prevent agitating the savages, Governor Kieft arranged to purchase the land from
them. A second patent for the English settlers was granted by Governor Kieft three
months later dated December 19, 1645. It was remarkable and unique in that era,
for a woman to be listed as heading the list of named patentees. This illustrates the
prominent position Lady Moody held. James Hubbard, George Baxter and Lady
Moody were formally granted land in Gravesend in the second patent of 19
December. In addition, James later acquired a track of 176 acres surveyed for him
at the head of Fresh Kill, Staten Island.
Situated on the far western end of Long Island, Gravesend was located on what
today is Brooklyn, New York. It occupies the most southern part of Kings County, on
the western tip on Long Island. The landscape in the early 17th century was one of
gently slopping ground of a light and sandy composition, which would support crops.
Its proximity to the sea provided for mild seasons and good farming as well as
grazing. The town was originally laid according to a definite plan; a 16-acre square,
bisected by two roads, to accommodate the forty house plots of the patentees. It
was surrounded radially by the same number of lots for planting outside the palisade
or fence - each plot being easily accessible by its owner. The town had four squares
accommodating the 39 plots, allowing for each patentee easy access to surrounding
fields. Each square had a common yard to board cattle at night. This square also
served some common purpose. In the center of the southwest square was a burying-
ground for public use, a second square for a schoolhouse, and the third for a church
and the last for a town hall. Every man was responsible for his own section of town
fence, however, as Schout James, a man of “great responsibility and influence,
was responsible for the oversight of this palisade and levied fines to those who failed
to maintain their respective section.
On 18 Nov. 1646, Lady Moody was allotted a double plantation (No. 9 & No. 10),
supposedly on the north side of Gravesend Neck Road, in the northwest of the four
village squares. In 1647, the meadow-land, that undivided portion lying between the
village and Coney Island, was divided and assigned, so that every man might know
his own; Sergeant Hubbard was appointed to do the work at the expense of the town.
“Gravesend Bay and Hubbards Creek, measured 30 chains, its southern shore 90
chains along the ocean and from the point... on Pine Island Inlet to the entrance of
the Ditch into the bay not quite 40 chains. Coney Island [1644?] was considerably
smaller than today. Its north shore along the Ditch connecting.
It didn't take long for the village to establish itself - as allowed by its patent, and to
set up a functional town government. James served as the village Schout, and as a
village magistrate in 1645, 46, 51, 53, 63.. He was Schout fiscaal in 1650, and is
referred to as “ Sergeant on many documents. In 1651, on behalf of his wife, James
brought a charge against a Thomas Applegate: “Defendant is charged with saying
ye plaintiff had but had a wife Being questioned by the court if he could disprove the
fact, said, he never said it. Nevertheless, the Court sentenced him to make public
acknowledge of his error, and to stand at the public post during the pleasure of the
Court, with a paper on his breast mentioning the reason: that he is a notorious
scandalous person; whereupon he again confessed his guilt; and desired her to pass
it by, and remit it, which she freely did, and “he gave her thanks. Applegate shows
up in several such records and seems to have rubbed many people the wrong way.
Town meetings were, at first, held monthly, at some private house as evidenced by
the following town-order, “May 3d, 1652, voted to hold regular town-meetings the last
Saturday of every month at ye house of James Hubbard at 12 o clock, M., and ye
drum to beat one hour before ye time
Some of the Patentees and Founders of Gravesend:
-Capt. George Baxter: A Boston sea captain was entrusted to carry the Rhode Island
Charter, sealed at Whitehall, July 8 1663. For this service Baxter was allotted 25. “At
a very great meeting and assembly of freemen, held at Newport on Nov. 24, Baxter
“with much brevity held the charter, bearing ?? “his Majestys Royal Stampe and the
broad Seale,“ up on high in the perfect view of the people and then read aloud to the
gathered multitude. Joined community of Gravesend after original patent.Was English
secretary of New Netherlands in 1642 and ; A magistrate in Gravesend in 1650, and
53. His wifes name was Alice.
-John Bowne (Bound): [William, John and James Bowne] (not to be confused with
John Bowne of Flushing who exiled from New Netherlands and sent to Amsterdam),
later a prominent early settler of Monmouth, N. J., and an ancestor of President
Abraham Lincoln. He came to Gravesend having been driven out of Massachusetts
as a Baptist. Went to Middletown in December 1663 where he was a founder of
Middletowns Baptist Church, and built the old Manor House, later known as
“Crawford Hill which burned down in 1890. Bowne, Grover, Stout went on to
Middletown for the remainder of their lives. Married Lydia Holmes, daughter of Rev.
Obadiah Holmes of Rhode Island. He lived there until his death, 3 January 1684. He
is buried in the old Presbyterian Burying Ground at Middletown. His is the oldest
stone in the yard. Named on a deed dated January 1664, with James Hubbard, John
Tilton, Jr., Richard Stout, William Goulding and Samuel Spicer, for the purchase of
Indian lands in New Jersey. The consideration was as follows: “118 fathom
seawamps (wampum), of which 68 fathom was to be white seawamp, and 50
fathom black, 5 coats, 1 gun, 1 clout capp, 1 shirt, 12 pounds tobacco, 1 anker wine.
In addition, “82 fathoms of additional seawamp to be paid twelve months hence.
James Bowne, and John Tilton were two of four interpreters present indicating they
had considerable previous exposure with the Indians. Named under the “Monmouth
-William Goulding: Awarded lot m 16 in 1667, apportionment of Middletown lots.
Came from Gravesend. Charged with early land surveys of Monmouth. Goulding
was a Baptist. His wifes name was Rebecca. Goulding died in 1685 or 86.
-James Grover: Apprenticed to James Hubbard at Lynn - 1643. Founder of Monmouth
County, granted land at Gravesend 20 Feb. 1646 in the first division of land there.
With Hubbard and Baxter, raised the banner of rebellion in 1655. Managed to escape
to Boston and later to England. Later returned with a letter from the Lord Protector,
Oliver Cromwell to the English inhabitants on Long Island. Grover Dec. 1 1685, at
Middletown His wifes name was Rebecca. Their children were; James, Joseph,
Safety, Abigail - (wife of Benjamin Borden) and Hannah - (wife of Richard Gardiner).
Grover had land on NE side of Mill Creek. Will proved; 28 Jan. 1685.
-John Ruckman: Originally of Sandwich [England] in 1644 he moved to Gravesend
and died about 1650. His children were Samuel, Thomas, and John.
-John Ruckman: Son of John, was a Baptist and one of the Gravesend men.
Awarded Middletown lot No.1 and out-lot No. 3. Supposed to have been born 1644.
-Samuel Spicer: son of Thomas and Mical of Gravesend married Esther (Hester),
daughter of John and Mary Tilton. Both Samuel and Mical, as Quakers, suffered
from religions persecution at the hands of the Dutch. Named on “Monmouth Patent
later removed to Shrewsbury, NJ.
-Nicolas Stillwell: “Nicolas, the Tobacco Planter Founder of Hopton, forced to flee to
Fort Amsterdam in face of Indian uprising. Experienced religious intolerance in New
England. Stillwell and others fled his stone house (a nucleus for an English
settlement) at Hopton for the safety of the fort. Joined with Lady Moody and others
to settle Gravesend.
-Richard Stout: -A resident of New Amsterdam in the spring on 1643, employed by
Governor Kieft as a soldier in the February uprising of that year. Named under the
“Monmouth Patent, accompanied Lady Moody and others to settle Gravesend
between her arrival in June and October of that year. In 1646 he received lot m 16 in
Gravesend where he grew tobacco. In 1657, 17 of his 20 acres were under
cultivation. In 1661, he bought an adjoining farm of William Griffin. The Stout family
was an important one in the Hopewell settlement. Many descendants of their family
can to this day be found in northeastern New Jersey. This Baptist family originated
from one woman. The story of Penelope Stout, once butchered and left for dead in
the wilderness, is a stirring and fascinating one, which gives the reader an idea of the
hardships settlers faced. Born in Amsterdam about 1602, Penelope and her first
husband (name unknown), sailed for New Amsterdam about 1620. Their vessel was
stranded on Sandy Hook, and the crew headed for New Amsterdam leaving Penelope
with her husband who was injured in the wreck. She and her husband waited in the
nearby woods. Not long after the crew left, Indians came upon them, stripped and
killed them (or so they thought) and left. Penelope, however, was not dead. Her skull
fractured; her left arm mangled and hacked (never to be used again like the other),
and her abdomen was opened up with her bowels exposed - requiring her to hold
them in with her hand. She survived for seven days sheltered in a tree and eating
moss and growths. On the seventh day she saw a deer pass by with arrows sticking
out of it followed by two Indians. She had hoped they would put her out of her
misery. One of them started to do just that, and just as he was about to strike the
fatal blow, the other stopped him; instead he covered her with his coat, threw her
over his shoulder, and carried her off to his wigwam. There, the Indians gave her
food, drink and good clothes to wear while she recovered. About 1624, in New
Amsterdam, Richard Stout, a native of England, married her. He was 40 while she
only 22. She induced him to sail across the bay and settle at Middletown, near those
who saved her. Many of his friends visited this contented couple and took up
residence there. When they had two young children, an uprising was stirring. One of
Mrs. Stouts Indian friends came to warn her, and she was able to escape again to
New Amsterdam with her children. There are references to Richard Stout attempting
to settle Middletown in 1655, which were aborted. This may have been temporary due
to Indian problems. Later, a general conference was held in which the white men
agreed to buy the lands from the Indians. Deeds were granted, signed and duly paid
for and witnessed. This led to relative peace in the area. Penelope went on to bear 10
children; seven sons and three daughters: Jonathan (founder of Hopewell), John,
Richard, James Peter, David, Benjamin, Mary, Sarah and Alice. Penelope lived to be
110 years old and saw 502 offspring in 88 years.
-John Tilton: (Town Clerk), John Tilton Sr. was a Quaker
-John Tilton, [Jr.]: Interpreter on same outline above. He is shown on deeds with
Indians in 1664 (See: John Bowne), and named on the “Monmouth Patent
-Garret and Walter Wall: Brothers who came about 1640, from Wiltshire, England
(probably one of the original families who came over with Lady Moody) to Lynn Mass,
removed to Graveside. Among the first settlers taking root as early as 1666. Walter
was awarded plot No. 4 at Middletown. In 1670, he was an Associate of the
Patentees. Garrett of Jarred, lived on what was later the John Stout farm, two miles
west of Middletown, where the family graveyard is to be found.
Indian Problems: Life wasnt easy in the new colony. Especially in the outlying
villages, it was at times precarious. Each man was required to maintain a gun,
powder, and lead, constantly on hand; yet, the settlers were not prepared for the
Indian War which broke out in 1643-44, and were almost wiped out by sudden and
fierce attacks. Lady Moodys settlement at Gravesend was at first able to withstand
the attacks, her house being singled out for its prominence. During one particular
onslaught; “The townsmen many being experienced, having served with Lieutenant
Nicolas Stillwells previous engagements, along with Ensign George Baxter and
Sergeant James Hubbard were well organized into a trained band, gave them so
brisk and severe reception that they were soon in full retreat. Forty able bodied men,
(probably all the men available in the town) defended the settlement. On one other
occasion, a much larger attack was initiated and the townspeople were forced to
escape to Amersfort (Flatbush) until the danger had passed ending hostilities. That
year (1645), a peace was struck with Pennowits, the crafty chief of the Canarsies.
The peace with the Indians lasted nearly a decade until 1655, when the Indian
situation again came to a boil in the form of one of the fiercest attacks yet! A large
body of Indians came south down the Hudson River, leaving death and destruction
along the Jersey shore. They crossed to Staten Island where they killed sixty-seven
white settlers, destroying their property in their wake. From there they crossed the
Narrows and fell upon Gravesend. Unable to drive the Indians away the townsmen
held their ground until relieved by a detachment of soldiers from Fort Amsterdam.
This was the end of any major Indian problems for the people of Gravesend.
“April 16, 1656, Att an assemblie of ye Inabitants uppon a lawful warning given, it
was inacted, ordered and agreed uppon that hee, she or they whatsoever, that should
tapp, draw out, sell or lett any Indian or Indians in this corporation have any brandie,
wine, strong liquor or strong drink, should, if so foctd, paye the summ of fifty gilders,
according to the law on the country. (The law also provided that not more than one
pint should be sold, at any time to the whites.)
Wolves seem to have been a problem for the settlers. A 5-gilder reward for every
wolf killed within the town land was ordered paid in 1657. All these hardships appear
to have been enough for the Lady to consider returning to Massachusetts, as
evidenced by a letter from Deputy- Governor John Endicott to Governor Winthrop,
dated 22 February 1644. Endicott urged Winthrop to disapprove the request unless
she “would confess her previous error and leave her opinions behind.
In 1646, the inhabitants availed themselves of the privilege granted by their patent,
“to erect a body politique and civil combination, and to “ elect, nominate and choose
three of the ablest, approved honest men, who should act as justices in the town-
court, when confirmed by the Governor- General. The three men first elected and so
sworn were: Lieut. George Baxter, Edward Brown, and William Wilkins. Sergeant
James Hubbard was chosen schout or constable, and John Tilton, “town-clerk, with a
salary of one gilder (40 cents) from every inhabitant of the town
In 1653, James was chosen to represent the town in a convention “to devise and
recommend measures for the public security and put a stop to the piracies and
robberies of one Thomas Baxter (not to be confused with George Baxter)
On 23 September 1654, a group of 23 Sephardic Jews arrive at Fort Amsterdam
aboard the St. Charles following the Portuguese expulsion from Recife, Brazil.
Against protests, on 26 April 1655 the Dutch West Indies Company ruled that the
Jews must be allowed to stay in the colony. Later it was decided that Jews in the
colony would not be allowed to serve in the militia, and were required to pay a fee
to compensate the government for providing for their defense.
The Quakers (Friends): Lady Moody was never accused of denying the ordinance of
baptism, or even infant baptism, only that infant baptism was not an ordinance of
God. She was unquestionably a deeply religious woman of faith. Its likely that Lady
Moody and her followers were initially followers of the Baptist faith, with ties to
Williams of Rhode Island. However, the free thinking spirit and tolerance of those
freely practicing their religion attracted, and later made for an eventual Quaker
stronghold on Long Island. Several of the original patentees later adopted became
Quakers and late in the 17th century there was said to be a colony of Friends, at
Gravesend. In August 1657 an English ship landed in New Netherlands. With it were
eleven Quakers, including Richard Hodgson and two companions who went on to
Gravesend, and according to Hodgson's journal, his testimony was received. This
was, he stated , was the first Quaker meeting in America. In a report to the state of
the churches in New Netherlands by Dominies Megapolenis and Drisius: “Those at
Gravesend are reported Menninists; yea, they, for the most part, reject Infant
Baptism, the Sabbath, the office of Preacher, and the Teachers of God's word,
saying that through these have come all sorts of contention into the world. Whenever
they meet together the one or the other reads something to them.
By 1658, Friends migrated towards the western end of Long Island. Stuyvesant
naturally persecuted them, at times to the extreme. In early 1658, John Tilton, the
town clerk was called to account for entertaining a Quakeress - a female preacher in
his home. He pleaded that she was in his home while he was absent; and with this
excuse he was simply fined . About a year after Hodgsons visit, two other Quakers
came up from Virginia. Stuyvesant had them arrested and taken to Staten Island.
They escaped and went to Gravesend in an Indian canoe; where according to their
own testimony, “they found Friends in the truth by whom they were refreshed. They
also stated that meetings were held at the home of Lady Moody who “managed all
things with such prudence and observance of time and place as to give no offense to
any person of another religion.
In 1659, the town had become known as a “Mecca of Quakerism.In 1661, during one
Quaker meeting in the town, Governor Stuyvesant sent his sheriff, Waldron, to arrest
the preacher, who managed to escape leaving only his cloak. Samuel Spicer was
fined 12 for the grievous offense of entertaining him. There seems to have been no
preacher in the colony as Gov. Stuyvesant appealed for a minister “because the
people led such Godless lives, on account of such diversity of religious opinion
among them. Living in Gravesend just before her death, Lady Deborah Moody
herself became a Quaker. Her son sold her house and lot which he had inherited
from her on her death and went to Virginia. For sixteen years, it is said of her
endearingly; “she went in and out among the people. Lady Moody died between 4
Nov. 1658 and 11 May 1659 - probably closer to the May date. The location of her
burial is unclear - she was buried in the town cemetery - her plot marked by a plain
John Tilton and his wife were again arrested in 1661, and banished for harboring
Quakers. Tilton failed to depart; two years later he was called to account for a similar
offense. Sam Spicers mother was even arrested for trying to entice a young girl into
Governor Peter Stuyvesant: (born c.1610, died February 1672) The fourth and last
director general of New Netherlands. A 44 year-old career military man, he began at
an early age and by 1632, was serving in the Dutch West India Company. Fighting t
he Portuguese at St. Martin in 1644, he lost a leg, replacing it with a wooden peg
ornamented with silver bands. Appointed by “the company to head New Netherlands
in 1646, he brought political and economic reform as well as diplomatic success to
the struggling colony. He was an unpopular administrator; described as irascible,
pompous, intolerant, and authoritarian. His career came to an end when, after a
surprise attack by an English naval force in September 1664, he surrendered the
colony without resistance. Today, the name Stuyvesant is synonymous with New
Netherlands. Dutch influence from this period still exists. The Bowery, a street in New
York City's lower Manhattan, was named “bouwerie("farm") by early Dutch settlers
because it led to the farm of Gov. Peter Stuyvesant. Additionally, more famous is
“Wall Street; the name is taken from an old wall built across lower Manhattan Island,
at what was then the northernmost boundary of the city, in 1653, by Stuyvesant
to protect the Dutch colonists
Peter Stuyvesant served from 1646 to 1664. When he took over as Governor
General in 1647, he found a motley throng of bizarre flimflam men, in and about
New Amsterdam ??â‚??“pressed on by greedy Swedes. These Dutchmen at New
Netherlands were a hustling, greedy, law-defying bunch. He was a company-oiented
man and that was his declared purpose for being there. He worked for God and the
Company, and damned be his critics! This made for a constant state of friction with
the prominent men of New Netherlands. He answered protest by saying that he
received his power from God and the company, not the people. On democracy, he
answered that “the thief would vote “for the thief “ and“ the rogue for the rogue 4 Dec.
1653, Stuyvesant tells the colonys first representative assembly, ??â‚??“We derive
our authority from God and the Company,
not from a few ignorant subjects.
Previous Governors, Minuit and Kieft sought out advice from their councilors, while
Stuyvesant enjoyed their council only so long as it agreed with his intentions. Kieft
had also sought the advice from head of prominent families from each of the
surrounding villages. Stuyvesant, though he tried, had a hard time ignoring this vocal
group who often disagreed with him. Lady Moody however, continued to enjoy his
respect and friendship and, as with Kieft, he sought her advice in several matters of
public importance. The nomination of the three town-magistrates was on one or two
occasions entrusted by him to her.
In 1655, James Hubbard married Martha, his first wife, of whom virtually nothing is
known. Its assumed that she died as he later remarried. Further, there are no records
of any children from this union. As James was incarcerated for one year beginning in
April of that year, it can be assumed that this marriage took place before early 1655.
Open Rebellion: The English settlements on Long Island continued to cause
Stuyvesant and his Dutch officials distress. The following entry in the colonial record
documents the Gravesend residents displeasure in the apparent removal of Baxter
and Hubbard from office by the Dutch:
“Whereas the inhabitants of Gravesend have repeatedly complained that no order
was kept there and the fences and palisades were not cared for, because the former
magistrates George Baxter and Sergeant Hubbard had for important reasons been
removed from office by the Director-General and council: (New officers appointed)
This done at Gravesend in the house of Lady Moody, the 23d of November 1654. The
reasons or circumstances of their removal are not given.
Discontented English settlers stewed over the years. They became increasingly
uncooperative in Colonial affairs, the situation becoming intolerable. Stuyvesant was
forced to agree in the Treaty of Hartford, that the English should have all of Long
Island, east of Oyster Bay, and retain their settlements of Hempstead and
Gravesend. This still was not good enough, and open rebellion broke out in 1655.
On 9 March 1655 the Gravesend Englishmen, in open contempt of Dutch authority,
twisted the knife even further into the ribs of their Dutch lords. That day James
Grover, with Hubbard and Baxter raised St. Andrews banner at Gravesend, and
declared that land to be under the control of England. Stuyvesant with advance
knowledge of this outrage dispatched a company of soldiers with orders for their
arrest. The soldiers arrived in time to witness the event. This incident is referred to in
many accounts as “a short lived armed rebellion against the Dutch Adam Mott,
Nicolas Stillwell and others were also involved and significant in this bold stand in the
face of Dutch (Stuyvesants) tyranny. There is however, no account of actual fighting
“. . . Baxter, who, on being suspended from his magistry, at Graveside, had gone to
New England, returned to Long Island, early the next year, and spread reports that
the Protector had ordered the governors of the New England colonies to take the
whole of that island from the Dutch, and by force, if necessary. Fiscal Van Tienhoven
was therefore sent, with Burgomaster Anthony, to the English villages to quell the
threatened disturbances. March 9 The commissioners reached Gravesend just as
Baxter, Hubbard and Grover were hoisting the British flag, and reading a seditious
paper, declaring that we, as freeborn British subjects, claim and assume to ourselves
the laws of our nation and Republic of England over this place, as to our persons and
property, in love and harmony, according to the general peace between the two
states in Europe and this country. The chief traitors, Baxter and Hubbard were
instantly arrested and sent to the keep at Fort Amsterdam, where they remained
imprisoned until the next year.
Several of the inhabitants were induced by Baxter to sign a memorial praying to
Cromwell to take them under the protection of England, and emancipate them from
the dominion of the Dutch. The memorial was carried to London in [March 1656] by
James Grover, who, with Baxter and Hubbard, had hoisted the English colors at
Gravesend the year before. To public treason Baxter now added private dishonesty.
Besides other debts, he owed two hundred guilders to the poor fund; and his cattle
were under seizure. These he secretly removed at night. His defrauded creditors
became clamorous; his farm and other effects were seized in execution; and the
bankrupt traitor fled to New England to work all the mischief he could against New
Sergeant James Hubbard, Adam Mott and George Baxter (and perhaps others) were
captured and imprisoned in the jail at the base of Fort Amsterdam.
. . . the treacherous action of George Baxter and his accomplices has startled us very
much; . . . meanwhile you are strictly charged, to keep aforesaid men in close and
stringent containment, as it is required in so important a case: we further
recommend, that henceforth you dispense in the government of the respective places
there with such foreigners, who have no domicile in this country, for little or no
confidence can be placed upon them; hencewith etc etc Your good friends The
Directors of the W. I. Company Department of Amsterdam Aug. 13th 1655
Isaac van Beeck
Baxter wrote: “Whereas I the undersigned, George Baxter, at present imprisoned by
the Honorable Director General and Supreme Council of New Netherlands, am
graciously removed from my prison and detained in a room at the City Hall of this city
(although I am undeserving of such favor . . . .“
Grover managed to escape the Dutch and went first, to Boston, and later on to
England. In 1657 he returned with a letter from none other than the Lord Protector,
Oliver Cromwell, addressed to the English inhabitants on Long Island. Baxter
presented this document to the magistrates of Gravesend, “to be opened and read.?
But Stuyvesant had been forewarned of this, and he sent the following letter:
“Honorable, Dear. Faithful, the Schout and Magistrates of the village of Gravesend
We received quite late your information that one James Grover had come there with a
letter from the Lord Protector to the English inhabitants on Long Island. The Indians
and English inhabitants outside of our jurisdiction and Government can take and read
them to their people, but we are unable to understand how any letters from any
foreign Prince of Potentate can be accepted within our Government by subjects under
oath and obedience to us. Therefore you are hereby requested , and at the same
time authorized to send said James Grover, with his letters to us in order to exhibit to
us in our Council what writing he has for our subjects. Awaiting which, after cordial
greeting, we shall commend you to God's protection, and remain, Honorable, Dear,
Faithful, Your affectionate friends. The Director and Council of New
Netherlands. Petrus Stuyvesant.
Grover was not anxious to see Stuyvesant, especially after hearing of the
imprisonment of Hubbard, Mott and Baxter. He made his second escape, leaving the
letter with his friends in Gravesend. They sent it unopened to New Amsterdam.
Stuyvesant, suspecting that the English had petitioned Cromwell for liberation from
the Dutch, sent the letter unopened to Amsterdam on the ship de Waegh.
Baxter and Hubbard, had now been nearly a year in the keep of Fort Amsterdam.
At the intercession of Sir Henry Moody and the Gravesend magistrates, Stuyvesant
released Hubbard, and transferred Baxter, upon bail, to the debtors room at the
courthouse until the Amsterdam Chamber should decide upon his case. A few weeks
later, the Englishman forfeited his bail and escaped to Gravesend where he again
began to plot against his former patrons. In 1657, an open enemy of the Dutch, yet
protected by the townspeople of Gravesend, James Grover had a farm with six acres
under cultivation where he continued to raise tobacco.
The flames of rebellion continued to be fanned. Stuyvesant had his hands full and
used harsh measures to rule as was his practice. John Tilton and his wife Goodie,
were banished from the colony for their heresies?. Additionally the “upright" John
Bowne, Quaker from Flushing, was sent to Holland to be out on trial for his faith.
Sir Henry Moody negotiated with the Dutch and eventually Adam Mott and James
Hubbard were released from their 12 month imprisonment for their part of the 1655
rebellion, granted on condition of James??â‚?â„? promise of good behavior. James
Hubbard however, remained in constant conflict with the Dutch and continued to seek
severance from their rule. Many of the Gravesend men looked south to the shores of
what was later called New Jersey, seven miles across the narrows.
When, in 1663, the Dutch waged war with the Esopus tribe, James Grover busied
himself writing and visiting English towns on Long Island dissuading them from
assisting the Governor in his war with the Indians.
Looking For Change: The residents of the English villages on Long Island grew
steadily more restless under the Dutch. Several solutions were contemplated. Joining
in union with the northern colonies of Rhode Island or Connecticut was talked of, and
even some gestures in that direction were begun - but to no avail. Many of the
Gravesend men looked yearningly across the narrows towards the Jersey coast, and
the opportunities it presented. Subtle negotiations with the Indians there, planted
seeds for future treaties and deals. In 1655, Richard Stout attempted to settle
Middletown - an effort marred with Indian troubles and eventual evacuation.
English residents became increasingly restless and talk of uniting with Connecticut
spread. Further, talk of an impending English incursion could be heard. Word was that
Charles of England was about to bestow upon his brother, the Duke of York (Bloody
James), the Dutch territories of New Netherlands. Captain John Bowne through his
father-in-law, Rev. Obidaih Holmes who enjoyed some very close associations with
important people in Rhode Island had advance knowledge of this and made plans for
the English arrival. Many doubted the information, but the men of Gravesend were
jolted into action. Bowne stirred up the men and called for plans of action. A call for
more than mere words was made and in 1663 several were deputized to “spy out the
land and make definite arrangements for definite action.
No doubt, the English residents saw this as an opportunity to get in an early bid for
lands, which would be opening up under an anticipated British administration. Twenty
men stepped forward headed by Captain John Bowne, boarded a sloop and set out
for an inspection tour of lands they hoped to purchase or acquire through title from
the Indians. Across the Bay they sailed up the Raritan River, back along the northern
shores of Monmouth and into the mouths of the Matawan, Waycake, and Coopers
Creeks, landing now and again to scout out the land. Finally, they camped on Sandy
Hook, where they explored both arms of the Shrewsbury River. The movement of so
large a group of Englishmen caught the attention of the ever-suspicious Dutch.
On 6 December 1663, Stuyvesant dispatched an armed force of ten soldiers, two
sailors, and four officials of the government, on the Company “yacht, to intercede in
any illegal sale of lands without the blessing of the Company.? On 7 December, they
came to the mouth of the Raritan River where two Indian (the “Southern Savages)
The Indians told the Dutch that the English, numbering nineteen, had gone in an open
boat up the Raritan the day before. After following their movements and weathering
a “blow? the Dutch encountered the English. The Dutch later reported they
encountered; William Goulding, Randall Huet, Derrick (Richard) Stout, James
Hubbard, James Grover, Thomas Whitlock, Sergeant Richard Gibbons, John
Ruckman, Sam Spicer, a man named Kreupelbos, one from Flushing, two from
Jamaica, and some others they “did not know?. After landing at Sandy Hook on 10
December, they reported that they saw the Englishmen“standing under arms.
By the Dutch account the schout Charles Morgen and John Bowne came toward
them without arms and were asked, what business they had there. “We came to
trade, they responded. To which the Dutch answered: “Why are you come in such
numbers if you only come to trade? “The savages are rascals and cannot be trusted,
therefore we are in such numbers. They told the Dutchmen they had heard that they
had come to buy land from the savages to which the Englishmen replied: “We only go
to look at it. The Gravesend men were reminded: “They should not undertake to buy
any land from the savages as it has been mostly been bought from the Dutch already.
At which John Bowne answered: “Under what government do you consider us to
be? “That here was the reply. Bowne retorted: “Why may we not go to look for land
just as well as you do? Again they were reminded: “They must not undertake to buy
land from the savages unless they had proper permission from the Director-General
It is well Bowne said “You are a band of traitors and are against the government of
the state. “Your Government countered Bowne folding his arms across his chest and
adding, “It shall be well.” The Dutch force retreated to Manhattan, and the Englishmen
continued making their plans. Within a year the English would return and take control
of the former Dutch colony .
From 1665-1667, the British and Dutch fought an indecisive trade war, The time was
right for an English move towards seizing the Dutch colony with its fine harbor and
access to the trade rich Hudson River valley. England's restored Charles II gave
Dutch America to his brother and authorized a fleet to capture it. Governor Winthrop
came over from Connecticut to New Amsterdam on the request of Colonel Nicolls,
and entered into negotiations with Peter Stuyvesant. After a stopover in Boston, the
four frigates proceeded to New Netherlands, under the command of Colonel Richard
Nicolls, and accompanied by three other commissioners of the King.
On August 18th, 1664, they anchored off of Gravesend Bay, not far from Coney
Island, and a letter was sent to Stuyvesant demanding his surrender. Stuyvesant
was in a rage, and asked for three days to consider and discuss the situation with
his burgomasters. Nicolls agreed and after unloading his troops at Gravesend, moved
the ships with a thousand soldiers aboard; two training their guns on the fort while a
third anchored at Nut Island (Governors Island). The troops encamped there. The
men who unloaded at Gravesend were shortly joined by horse and foot soldiers from
other Long Island towns, making their way to the ferry (connecting Breucklen with
New Amsterdam). There were in all, an additional 1,000 men from Long Island and
Connecticut to bolster the fleet soldiers. Greatly outnumbered with only about 150
soldiers to defend the Dutch fort, and with little powder or ammunition, the peg-
legged Governor Stuyvesant had no choice but to capitulate. On 27 August, 1664,
Stuyvesant surrendered 33 settlements and an entire colony under his control without
a shot being fired.
New Netherlands, occupied by the Dutch since 1624, became English, and New
Amsterdam was renamed New York. New Jersey, sparsely settled by the Dutch,
Swedes, and others, was also part of this English claim. Its proprietors divided it into
East and West Jersey in 1676, but the colony was reunited as a royal province in
Under the British: The new English Governor, Nicolls, wasted no time in granting
permission for the Gravesend men and others to settle the lands located across the
narrows in Monmouth.
“Upon the request of Wm Goulding, James Grover and John Browne [Bowne], on
behalf of them and their associates, I do hereby authorize them to treat and conclude
with the several sachems of the Nevisans or any others concerned about the
purchase of a parsel of land lying and being on the maine, extending from
Chawgoranis, near the mouth of the Raritan River, unto Pontohecke. For the doing
whereof this shall be their warrant. Given under my hand at Fort James, in New York,
on Manhattan Island, the 17th day of October 1664. R. Nicolls
In anticipation of this permission these men secured a deed from Papomora, Chief of
the Indians in the Monmouth area; Papomora, Chief of ye Indians, To James
Hubbard, John Bowne, John Tilton, Jr., Richard Stout, William Goulding and Samuel
Spicer. Jan 25 1664
They immediately set out to settle Middletown, Shrewsbury, Portland Point; as well as
a scattering of plantations. In the spring or early summer of 1664, Captain John
Bowne, Richard Stout, James Grover and Richard Gibbons located themselves near
the site of the present Middletown village, and began to erect houses for shelter and
protection of their families which were moved in as soon as the buildings were
completed. By the spring of 1665, these four families were comfortably and
permanently seated there. These were Monmouths first families
By now, it was obvious to the Indian leaders that the white man was there to stay and
moved out of the grantees areas. Several other deeds were negotiated with the
Indians of Monmouth, granting lands to the encroaching Englishmen.
Taplawappammund, Mattamahickanick, and Yawpochammund, Kackenham, also
Mattanoh, Norchon and Qurrmeck, To John Tilton, Samuel Spicer, William Goulding,
Richard Gibbons, James Grover and Richard Stout April 7, 1665
Manavendo, Emmerdesolsee, Pappomera, Checawsmm, Shanhemun, Cramanscun,
Winegermeca, Macca meca To James Grover, John Bowne, Richard Stout,
John Tilton, Richard Gibbons, William Goulding, Samuel Spicer, and the rest of the
company. June 5, 1665
James, continued to remain active in local government, sat as a member on the local
court and as a Justice performed several marriages: - October 26, 1665, James
Hubbard, Justice, married Samuel Holmes (son of Obadiah Holmes) to Alice Stillwell,
daughter of Nicolas and Ann Stillwell. - March 17, 1669, James is listed as one of
three Justices on the court of Sessions held at Gravesend - December 21,1676,
“Capt. Hubbard's as a justice in court. - June 19,1677, Mr. Hubbard sat as Justice of
the Peace at Gravesend - December 18,1678, Capt. Hubbard was a defendant in a
land dispute with Charles Bridges
On 29 Dec. 1664, a marriage license was granted to James Hubbart and Elizabeth
Bayly (Elizabeth Baylis, born about 1646, died after 1682) and on the 31st,
Sergeant James Hubbard was married, by a magistrate. This was his second
marriage. Their children were:
James, 10 Dec. 1665
Rebecca, 28 Aug. 1667
Elizabeth, born 3 Jun. 1669
John, born 20 Mar 1670
Elias, born 11 APR 1673
Hannah, born ?
Samuel, born 2 May 1676
The important business of establishing a colony under English administration began.
The towns all sent Deputies to attend what became known as the Hempstead
Convention of 1665. Gravesend sent James Hubbard and Richard Dowe.
Contemporary writing is critical of Stuyvesant, and more so of Kieft's administration
of the colony. However, the English administration had it's own problems. In 1670,
the governor and council proposed an ridicules tax to be imposed to repair the fort.
Opposition was viscous. Flushing, Hempstead and Jamaica, send their messages of
protest to the court of sessions (sitting at Gravesend at the time) denouncing them
as “false, scandalous, illegal and seditious. Further, ordering that they be openly and
publicly burned before the town house in New York.
In 1672, the villages on the far eastern end of Long Island, so uncontent with New
York rule asked the Privy Council in England to be annexed by Connecticut; or, if that
was not possible, to be allowed to form their own colony. Connecticut was warned to
stop encouraging and supporting these rebellious people.
“Convened at Hempstead by Governor Richard Nicolls, February 28th 1665, the first
governor of New York under the English dominion, and successor of the famous
governor Peter Stuyvesant, the last Dutch Governor.
August 1673 - a Dutch fleet appeared off Staten Is. New Jersey became part of New
Netherlands again. The Dutch retook New York in 1673, but it was permanently
restored to England the following year by the Treaty of Westminster. It is no surprise
that at first Nicolls administration was authoritarian - a military government. Not only
were the former inhabitants accustomed to this but once again England and Holland
were at war (1665-1667) until the treaty of Breda formally awarded New York to the
There were five years of relative peace until the third Anglo-Dutch war broke out,
during which the Dutch recaptured the territory on 30 July 1673; holding it a little over
a year until their second surrender, 31 October 1674.
In 1692 or 1693 James died. “In his old age he came to Monmouth to die,and here in
1692, he was buried“ Thus ended the life of a pilgrim, pioneer and town servant.