Hubbard Database - Page 2
(3) A collection of articles found on the Internet describing the history of the Hubbard Family
in America. Included is an article written by William S. Hubbart in 1998 outlining the story
of a direct ancestor, James Hubbard and his descendants.
Samuel Hubbard & Tacy Cooper
Husband: Samuel Hubbard
Born: 1610 in Mendelsham, England
Married: 04 Jan 1637/38 2
Died: after 1688 in Newport, Newport Co., RI
Wife: Tacy Cooper
Born: 1608 in England 1
Died: after 1688 in Newport, Newport Co., RI
01 (F): Ruth Hubbard
Born: 10 Sep 1640
02 (F): Naomi Hubbard
Born: about 1642
Died: 05 May 1643
03 (F): Rachel Hubbard
Born: 07 Mar 1642/43
04 (M): Samuel Hubbard
Born: 25 Mar 1644
Died: 25 Mar 1644
05 (F): Bethia Cooper Hubbard
Born: 29 Dec 1646 in Springfield, Hampden Co., MA 3
Died: 17 Apr 1707 in Westerly, Washington Co., RI 4
Spouses: Joseph Clarke
06 (M): Samuel Hubbard
Born: about 1650
Died: 20 Jan 1670/71
One Thousand years of Hubbard History: 866 - 1895
Published by Harlan Page Hubbard, New York. 1895.
Samuel arrived in Salem, Massachusetts, in October, 1633, and probably came in
the ship James, Grant, master, which left Gravesend, England, late in August,
1633, and arrived in Massachusetts Bay October 10, 1633. He says in his
Diary,(*) "I was born of good parents. My Mother brought me up in the fear of the
Lord, in Mendlesham, in catechiseing me and hearing choice ministers."
In 1635, he moved to Watertown, Massachusetts, where he joined the church.
This same year he went to Dorchester (Windsor), Ct., with the overland
migrators. He was married there by Mr. Ludlow to Tacy. She had brothers
Robert, of Yarmouth, Norfolk, and John of London, Eng.
Samuel and Tacy went to Wethersfield, Ct., in 1637, and May 10, 1639, moved
up the Connecticut River to Springfield, MA. In Dec. 1640 "Samuel Hubbard is
alsoe appoynted by a generall vote to keepe an Ordinary [Inn] for ye
entertaynment of Strangers."
They left for Fairfield, Ct., in 1647, though staying there but a short time on
account of church disagreements. Samuel was now with his wife imbibing freely
and preaching ardently the doctrines of Anabaptism. He says in his diary: "God
having enlightened both (but mostly my wife) into his holy ordinance of baptising
only of visible believers, and being very zealous for it, she was mostly struck at,
and answered two terms publicly, where I was said to be as bad as she, and sore
threatened with imprisonment to Hartford jail, if not to renounce it or to remove:
that scripture came into our minds:
"If they persecute you in one place flee to another;" and so we did 2 day of
October, 1648. We went for Rhode Island and arrived there the 12 day. I and my
wife upon our manifestation of our faith were baptised by brother Joseph Clarke,
3 day of November, 1648."
Samuel was a zealous Baptist and public religous disputant. For twenty-three
years he belonged to the First Baptist Church of Newport, which sent him August
7, 1651, to Boston "to visit the bretherin who was imprisoned in Boston jayl for
witnessing the truth of baptising believers only, viz: Brothers John Clarke,
Obadiah Holmes, and John Crandall." In 1657 he went with Holmes on a
preaching tour on Long Island, and in 1664 he was appointed General Solicitor of
In about 1665, a Seventh Day Baptist missionary and his wife arrived in Newport
from London; the first convent to the Sabbath in America being Tacy. Samuel and
Tacy, one daughter, and four other persons formed the first Seventh Day Baptist
Church in America in 1671. Samuel reported that in 1678 there were 37
"Sabbatarians" in America; 20 in Newport, 7 at Westerly (also known as
Hopkinton) and 10 at New London, Connecticut. Three years later the number of
members reached 51; of this group two were Indians.
In 1675 in his diary he refers to a "testament of my grandfather Cocke's, printed in
1549, which he [Cocke] hid in his bed straw lest it should be found and burned in
Queen Mary's days."
He died between 1688 and 1692, and his wife after 1697, but no traces of their
burial places have been found.
1 Websites, "1000 years of Hubbard History."
2 Quality: 3.
3 Tacy Cooper, who was born in England in 1608 and came to
Dorchester, Mass, June 9, 1634 and to Connecticut (Windsor) in
1635. She had brothers, Robert of Yarmouth, Norfolk and
John of London, England. Robert returned to England
5 James Savage, Genealogical Dictionary of the First Settlers of New
England, Before 1692.
6 He and w. Tacey m. 4 Jan. 1638.
7 New England Historic Genealogical Society, RECORDS OF
SPRINGFIELD, MASS.-(Communicated by Charles H. S. Davis of
8 Quality: 3.
9 Bethiah Hubbert ye [sone] of Samuell Hubbert borne 10 mon. 29 day 1646.
11 James Savage, Genealogical Dictionary of the First Settlers of New
England, Before 1692.
12 His w. d 17 Apr. 1707.
Sgt James Hubbard of Gravesend; An English
Settlement among the Dutch in New Netherlands
1st Sgt Wm. S. Hubbartt, U.E. - Guam 1998 All rights reserved
The Dutch arrived in America in 1614, when their sea power surpassed the
French and rivaled the English. Having gained independence from Catholic Spain
late in the previous century, Holland prospered in commerce and naval power. They
first established a trading post, specializing in furs, at Fort Orange, what
would later be known as Albany New York. This venture failed, but in 1624 the
Dutch were back and sealed a deal with the Iroquois tribe for exclusive trade,
in exchange for guns. New Netherlands was the name given to the new area of
Dutch settlement that May. Two years later, in the summer of 1626, Peter
Minuit, on behalf of the Dutch West India Company, purchased Manhattan Island from
the ‚“Man-a-hat-a Indians for goods worth about $24; and thus began the
town and fort at New Amsterdam on the southern tip of that island. New Amsterdam
was a company town, run by and for the Dutch West Indies Company. While more
tolerant than other colonies, this colony existed for the financial benefit of
“the company.? While the Dutch welcomed almost anyone who would agree to
settle the wild land (and abide by the “companys laws, there was
not a lot of tolerance for religious extremism, free speech, or democratic
practices. Dissenters from the officially sponsored Dutch Reformed Church were
frowned upon and Quakers were at times brutally abused. Under an increasingly
restless populace the Dutch administrators did however, eventually allow for some
internal government of the outlying villages.
By the time William Kieft replaced Wouter Van Twiller in 1638, New Amsterdam
had fallen into disrepair. There were gullies throughout the walls and men no
longer used the gates. Cannons were useless and buildings crumbling. The city
remained however a colorful town that drew an interesting mixes of peoples.
The colony earned the reputation as a lawless place occupied by illiterate men
whose main occupation was quick profit. Smuggling, illegal trading and skimming
off profits from the Companys fur trade was commonplace. Kieft was
energetic and took steps to reverse the decay of the Van Twiller administration.
Funds were limited but even so he organized a regular police watch, built
gallows, and strictly enforced existing laws. In 1640, eighteen languages were being
spoken on the streets of New Amsterdam. It was however, never as large or
populous as many of the other European colonial communities springing up
throughout the American frontier. New Amsterdam had only 1,500 people and the entire
colony no more than 5,000.
It's no wonder, that after escaping religious persecution of England and
eventually finding more of the same in New England, the Englishmen settled
among these Dutch. Good soil, mild climate and tolerance offered in “Niew
Netherlands made for a good draw. But, the main attraction was the relaxed laws
and liberal Dutch attitudes toward _expression of religion and mind.
The English Village of Gravesend: This is where the Hubbard family actually
took root in America. Needing immigrants to build their fledgling colony, in
1629, the Dutch West Indies Co. affected a plan to solve this problem. A
candidate with fifty potential settlers would be awarded a huge estate of land - a
patroon. The immigrants had to agree to live and work on their estates under
Dutch guidelines and rules, in what amounted to near servitude to the Dutch in
exchange for land. The Dutch in effect became feudal barons. This effort failed
and was discontinued by 1646. Two years after Kieft took over as
Governor-General, violence flared up over destruction of cornfields on Staten Island by
James Hubbard's early life continued to be a turbulent one. He arrived in
this Dutch Colony from Massachusetts in 1643. Its said he “Came to
Gravesend with Lady Moody, John Tilton, and others to enjoy their (peculiar)
religious views. Its clear that James Hubbard played a key role in
establishing this English settlement among the Dutch. As one of the original patentees,
he and several of his fellow countrymen bonded together against the harsh
conditions, winters, Indian attacks, and later, conflict with the Dutch Governors
iron-fisted rule, to forge a settlement which eventually grew to be part
of one of the largest cities in the world.
The Indians found intolerable, the habit of the Dutch cattle to stray from
their unfenced fields and destroy their small cornfields. They responded to
these intrusions by slaying the beasts in a sporting manner. This of
course, enraged the Dutch who saw no need to fence their cattle until it was
necessary (which meant until they had white neighbors). In one instance, in the
summer of 1640, some company employees traveling to the Delaware settlement
poached some pigs on DeVries' land located on Staten Island, and unobserved, went
on their way. The blame went to the nearby Raritan tribe camped just over
Author Kill in New Jersey. Governor Kieft then sent 50 armed men to avenge the
crime and make an example of the savages. They attacked the first village they
came to, massacred a number of Indians and burned their lodges and crops. In
response, the Raritan swarmed onto Staten Island, slaughtered several of the
DeVries people and wiped out the plantation. In turn a wampum, bounty was offered
for each Raritan head brought forth. Fueled by Kieft's policies, the
colony would suffer problems with the natives for some years to come.
The Lady Deborah Moody seems to have been the main influence in getting this
village started. After removing herself from Massachusetts, she settled in
1643, with her son and “associates in New Netherlands. They couldn't
have come at a worse time, as the colony was plagued with Indian problems and
often attacked. Upon arriving, she was pleased to find a number of her own
countrymen who sought refuge at the fort during recent Indian confrontations. One of
these was Nicolas Stillwell, whose experience with religions persecution was
similar to her own.
In February 1643, New Netherlands Governor Kieft??â‚?â„?s forces attacked Tapan
Indians at Pavonia. The Indians rose up and killed numerous settlers. The
survivors were forced to flee to Manhattan for their safety. Because of the Dutch
harsh policies towards the Indians, a general war ensued, forcing Stillwell
and others to flee his stone house (the center of the English settlement) at
Hopton to the safety of the fort. Eleven tribes rose up against the white
devils and killed every white man they could lay their hands on! Kieft saw no
alternative but to take into the fort all the panic-stricken inhabitants of the
colony for two months and place them in the service of the company, protecting
them until the crisis passed. A truce was finally arranged in 1645.
While at Fort Amsterdam Lady Moody's party and Stillwell's were invited
by the Dutch governor to select from unappropriated lands a location for a
new settlement. A committee was appointed; a site selected, and a patent for
lands secured on the western end of Long Island that summer of 1643. The survey
party selected a place well suited for settlement called “the cove, a
sheltered location across from Manhattan and the town of New Amsterdam. It was a
good area for farming and for cattle to graze. The land was generally level
and wooded with small sand hills along the coast. There were salt meadows
interspersed closer to the water. Nearby was Coney Island, separated from the town
by a small creek. It was decided to call this new town Gravesend, and it was
here that the original 39 “patentees” settled. Among them were; Sergeant
James Hubbard, John Tilton; William, John and James Bowne; James Grover; Richard
Stout; Nicolas Stillwell; Richard Gibbins; John Ruckman; Samuel Spicer;
William Golding; and William Compton. George Baxter later joined this group of
settlers and was appointed as interpreter.
The land where Gravesend stands, originally belonged to the Canarsie Indians;
and to prevent agitating the savages, Governor Kieft arranged to purchase the
land from them. A second patent for the English settlers was granted by
Governor Kieft three months later dated December 19, 1645. It was remarkable and
unique in that era, for a woman to be listed as heading the list of named
patentees. This illustrates the prominent position Lady Moody held. James Hubbard,
George Baxter and Lady Moody were formally granted land in Gravesend in the
second patent of 19 December. In addition, James later acquired a track of 176
acres surveyed for him at the head of Fresh Kill, Staten Island.
Situated on the far western end of Long Island, Gravesend was located on what
today is Brooklyn, New York. It occupies the most southern part of Kings
County, on the western tip on Long Island. The landscape in the early 17th century
was one of gently slopping ground of a light and sandy composition, which
would support crops. Its proximity to the sea provided for mild seasons and
good farming as well as grazing. The town was originally laid according to a
definite plan; a 16-acre square, bisected by two roads, to accommodate the forty
house plots of the patentees. It was surrounded radially by the same number
of lots for planting outside the palisade or fence - each plot being easily
accessible by its owner. The town had four squares accommodating the 39 plots,
allowing for each patentee easy access to surrounding fields. Each square had a
common yard to board cattle at night. This square also served some common
purpose. In the center of the southwest square was a burying-ground for public
use, a second square for a schoolhouse, and the third for a church and the last
for a town hall. Every man was responsible for his own section of town fence,
however, as Schout James, a man of “great responsibility and influence,
was responsible for the oversight of this palisade and levied fines to those
who failed to maintain their respective section.
On 18 Nov. 1646, Lady Moody was allotted a double plantation (No. 9 & No.
10), supposedly on the north side of Gravesend Neck Road, in the northwest of the
four village squares. In 1647, the meadow-land, that undivided portion lying
between the village and Coney Island, was divided and assigned, so that every
man might know his own; Sergeant Hubbard was appointed to do the work at the
expense of the town. .
“Gravesend Bay and Hubbards Creek, measured 30 chains, its
southern shore 90 chains along the ocean and from the point... on Pine Island Inlet
to the entrance of the Ditch into the bay not quite 40 chains. Coney Island
[1644?] was considerably smaller than today. Its north shore along the Ditch
It didn't take long for the village to establish itself - as allowed by it
s patent, and to set up a functional town government. James served as the
village Schout, and as a village magistrate in 1645, 46, 51, 53,
63.. He was Schout fiscaal in 1650, and is referred to as “
Sergeant on many documents. In 1651, on behalf of his wife, James brought a
charge against a Thomas Applegate: “Defendant is charged with saying ye
plaintiff had but had a wife Being questioned by the court if he could disprove
the fact, said, he never said it. Nevertheless, the Court sentenced him to
make public acknowledge of his error, and to stand at the public post during the
pleasure of the Court, with a paper on his breast mentioning the reason: that
he is a notorious scandalous person; whereupon he again confessed his guilt;
and desired her to pass it by, and remit it, which she freely did, and “he
gave her thanks. Applegate shows up in several such records and seems to
have rubbed many people the wrong way.
Town meetings were, at first, held monthly, at some private house as
evidenced by the following town-order, “May 3d, 1652, voted to hold regular
town-meetings the last Saturday of every month at ye house of James Hubbard at 12 o
clock, M., and ye drum to beat one hour before ye time
Some of the Patentees and Founders of Gravesend:
-Capt. George Baxter: A Boston sea captain was entrusted to carry the Rhode
Island Charter, sealed at Whitehall, July 8 1663. For this service Baxter was
allotted 25. “At a very great meeting and assembly of freemen, held at
Newport on Nov. 24, Baxter “with much brevity held the charter, bearing ??
“his Majestys Royal Stampe and the broad Seale,“ up on high in the
perfect view of the people and then read aloud to the gathered multitude.
Joined community of Gravesend after original patent. Was English secretary of
New Netherlands in 1642 and ; A magistrate in Gravesend in 1650,
and 53. His wifes name was Alice.
-John Bowne (Bound): [William, John and James Bowne] (not to be confused with
John Bowne of Flushing who exiled from New Netherlands and sent to
Amsterdam), later a prominent early settler of Monmouth, N. J., and an ancestor of
President Abraham Lincoln. He came to Gravesend having been driven out of
Massachusetts as a Baptist. Went to Middletown in December 1663 where he was a
of Middletowns Baptist Church, and built the old Manor House, later known
as “Crawford Hill which burned down in 1890. Bowne, Grover, Stout went
on to Middletown for the remainder of their lives. Married Lydia Holmes,
daughter of Rev. Obadiah Holmes of Rhode Island. He lived there until his death, 3
January 1684. He is buried in the old Presbyterian Burying Ground at
Middletown. His is the oldest stone in the yard. Named on a deed dated January 1664,
with James Hubbard, John Tilton, Jr., Richard Stout, William Goulding and Samuel
Spicer, for the purchase of Indian lands in New Jersey. The consideration was
as follows: “118 fathom seawamps (wampum), of which 68 fathom was to be
white seawamp, and 50 fathom black, 5 coats, 1 gun, 1 clout capp, 1 shirt, 12
pounds tobacco, 1 anker wine. In addition, “82 fathoms of additional
seawamp to be paid twelve months hence. James Bowne, and John Tilton were two of
four interpreters present indicating they had considerable previous exposure
with the Indians. Named under the “Monmouth Patent.
-William Goulding: Awarded lot m 16 in 1667, apportionment of Middletown
lots. Came from Gravesend. Charged with early land surveys of Monmouth. Goulding
was a Baptist. His wifes name was Rebecca. Goulding died in 1685 or 86.
-James Grover: Apprenticed to James Hubbard at Lynn - 1643. Founder of
Monmouth County, granted land at Gravesend 20 Feb. 1646 in the first division of
land there. With Hubbard and Baxter, raised the banner of rebellion in 1655.
Managed to escape to Boston and later to England. Later returned with a letter
from the Lord Protector, Oliver Cromwell to the English inhabitants on Long
Island. Grover Dec. 1 1685, at Middletown His wifes name was Rebecca. Their
children were; James, Joseph, Safety, Abigail - (wife of Benjamin Borden) and
Hannah - (wife of Richard Gardiner). Grover had land on NE side of Mill Creek.
Will proved; 28 Jan. 1685.
-John Ruckman: Originally of Sandwich [England] in 1644 he moved to Gravesend
and died about 1650. His children were Samuel, Thomas, and John.
-John Ruckman: Son of John, was a Baptist and one of the Gravesend men.
Awarded Middletown lot No.1 and out-lot No. 3. Supposed to have been born 1644.
-Samuel Spicer: son of Thomas and Mical of Gravesend married Esther (Hester),
daughter of John and Mary Tilton. Both Samuel and Mical, as Quakers, suffered
from religions persecution at the hands of the Dutch. Named on “Monmouth
Patent later removed to Shrewsbury, NJ.
-Nicolas Stillwell: “Nicolas, the Tobacco Planter Founder of Hopton,
forced to flee to Fort Amsterdam in face of Indian uprising. Experienced
religious intolerance in New England. Stillwell and others fled his stone house (a
nucleus for an English settlement) at Hopton for the safety of the fort. Joined
with Lady Moody and others to settle Gravesend.
-Richard Stout: -A resident of New Amsterdam in the spring on 1643, employed
by Governor Kieft as a soldier in the February uprising of that year. Named
under the “Monmouth Patent, accompanied Lady Moody and others to settle
Gravesend between her arrival in June and October of that year. In 1646 he
received lot m 16 in Gravesend where he grew tobacco. In 1657, 17 of his 20 acres
were under cultivation. In 1661, he bought an adjoining farm of William
Griffin. The Stout family was an important one in the Hopewell settlement. Many
descendants of their family can to this day be found in northeastern New Jersey.
This Baptist family originated from one woman. The story of Penelope Stout, once
butchered and left for dead in the wilderness, is a stirring and fascinating
one, which gives the reader an idea of the hardships settlers faced. Born in
Amsterdam about 1602, Penelope and her first husband (name unknown), sailed for
New Amsterdam about 1620. Their vessel was stranded on Sandy Hook, and the
crew headed for New Amsterdam leaving Penelope with her husband who was injured
in the wreck. She and her husband waited in the nearby woods. Not long after
the crew left, Indians came upon them, stripped and killed them (or so they
thought) and left. Penelope, however, was not dead. Her skull fractured; her left
arm mangled and hacked (never to be used again like the other), and her
abdomen was opened up with her bowels exposed - requiring her to hold them in with
her hand. She survived for seven days sheltered in a tree and eating moss and
growths. On the seventh day she saw a deer pass by with arrows sticking out of
it followed by two Indians. She had hoped they would put her out of her
misery. One of them started to do just that, and just as he was about to strike the
fatal blow, the other stopped him; instead he covered her with his coat,
threw her over his shoulder, and carried her off to his wigwam. There, the Indians
gave her food, drink and good clothes to wear while she recovered.
About 1624, in New Amsterdam, Richard Stout, a native of England, married
her. He was 40 while she only 22. She induced him to sail across the bay and
settle at Middletown, near those who saved her. Many of his friends visited this
contented couple and took up residence there. When they had two young children,
an uprising was stirring. One of Mrs. Stouts Indian friends came to warn
her, and she was able to escape again to New Amsterdam with her children.
There are references to Richard Stout attempting to settle Middletown in
1655, which were aborted. This may have been temporary due to Indian problems.
Later, a general conference was held in which the white men agreed to buy the
lands from the Indians. Deeds were granted, signed and duly paid for and
witnessed. This led to relative peace in the area. Penelope went on to bear 10
children; seven sons and three daughters: Jonathan (founder of Hopewell), John,
Richard, James Peter, David, Benjamin, Mary, Sarah and Alice. Penelope lived to be
110 years old and saw 502 offspring in 88 years.
-John Tilton: (Town Clerk), John Tilton Sr. was a Quaker
-John Tilton, [Jr.]: Interpreter on same outline above. He is shown on deeds
with Indians in 1664 (See: John Bowne), and named on the “Monmouth Patent
-Garret and Walter Wall: Brothers who came about 1640, from Wiltshire,
England (probably one of the original families who came over with Lady Moody) to
Lynn Mass, removed to Graveside. Among the first settlers taking root as early as
1666. Walter was awarded plot No. 4 at Middletown. In 1670, he was an
Associate of the Patentees. Garrett of Jarred, lived on what was later the John Stout
farm, two miles west of Middletown, where the family graveyard is to be found.
Indian Problems: Life wasnt easy in the new colony. Especially in the
outlying villages, it was at times precarious. Each man was required to maintain
a gun, powder, and lead, constantly on hand; yet, the settlers were not
prepared for the Indian War which broke out in 1643-44, and were almost wiped out by
sudden and fierce attacks. Lady Moodys settlement at Gravesend was at
first able to withstand the attacks, her house being singled out for its
prominence. During one particular onslaught; “The townsmen, many being
experienced, having served with Lieutenant Nicolas Stillwells previous
engagements, along with Ensign George Baxter and Sergeant James Hubbard were well
organized into a trained band, gave them so brisk and severe reception that they were
soon in full retreat. Forty able bodied men, (probably all the men
available in the town) defended the settlement. On one other occasion, a much larger
attack was initiated and the townspeople were forced to escape to Amersfort
(Flatbush) until the danger had passed ending hostilities. That year (1645), a
peace was struck with Pennowits, the crafty chief of the Canarsies.
The peace with the Indians lasted nearly a decade until 1655, when the Indian
situation again came to a boil in the form of one of the fiercest attacks
yet! A large body of Indians came south down the Hudson River, leaving death and
destruction along the Jersey shore. They crossed to Staten Island where they
killed sixty-seven white settlers, destroying their property in their wake.
From there they crossed the Narrows and fell upon Gravesend. Unable to drive the
Indians away the townsmen held their ground until relieved by a detachment of
soldiers from Fort Amsterdam. This was the end of any major Indian problems
for the people of Gravesend.
“April 16, 1656, Att an assemblie of ye Inabitants uppon a lawful warning
given, it was inacted, ordered and agreed uppon that hee, she or they
whatsoever, that should tapp, draw out, sell or lett any Indian or Indians in this
corporation have any brandie, wine, strong liquor or strong drink, should, if so
foctd, paye the summ of fifty gilders, according to the law on the country.
(The law also provided that not more than one pint should be sold, at any
time to the whites.)
Wolves seem to have been a problem for the settlers. A 5-gilder reward for
every wolf killed within the town land was ordered paid in 1657. All these
hardships appear to have been enough for the Lady to consider returning to
Massachusetts, as evidenced by a letter from Deputy- Governor John Endicott to
Governor Winthrop, dated 22 February 1644. Endicott urged Winthrop to disapprove the
request unless she “would confess her previous error and leave her opinions
In 1646, the inhabitants availed themselves of the privilege granted by their
patent, “to erect a body politique and civil combination, and to “
elect, nominate and choose three of the ablest, approved honest men, who
should act as justices in the town-court, when confirmed by the Governor- General.
The three men first elected and so sworn were: Lieut. George Baxter, Edward
Brown, and William Wilkins. Sergeant James Hubbard was chosen schout or
constable, and John Tilton, “town-clerk,??â‚??? with a salary of one gilder (40 cents)
from every inhabitant of the town
In 1653, James was chosen to represent the town in a convention “to devise
and recommend measures for the public security and put a stop to the piracies
and robberies of one Thomas Baxter (not to be confused with George Baxter)
On 23 September 1654, a group of 23 Sephardic Jews arrive at Fort Amsterdam
aboard the St. Charles following the Portuguese expulsion from Recife, Brazil.
Against protests, on 26 April 1655 the Dutch West Indies Company ruled that
the Jews must be allowed to stay in the colony. Later it was decided that Jews
in the colony would not be allowed to serve in the militia, and were required
to pay a fee to compensate the government for providing for their defense.
The Quakers (Friends): Lady Moody was never accused of denying the ordinance
of baptism, or even infant baptism, only that infant baptism was not an
ordinance of God. She was unquestionably a deeply religious woman of faith. Its
likely that Lady Moody and her followers were initially followers of the
Baptist faith, with ties to Williams of Rhode Island. However, the free thinking
spirit and tolerance of those freely practicing their religion attracted, and
later made for an eventual Quaker stronghold on Long Island. Several of the
original patentees later adopted became Quakers and late in the 17th century there
was said to be a colony of Friends, at Gravesend. In August 1657 an English
ship landed in New Netherlands. With it were eleven Quakers, including Richard
Hodgson and two companions who went on to Gravesend, and according to
Hodgson's journal, his testimony was received. This was, he stated , was the first
Quaker meeting in America. In a report to the state of the churches in New
Netherlands by Dominies Megapolenis and Drisius:
“Those at Gravesend are reported Menninists; yea, they, for the most part,
reject Infant Baptism, the Sabbath, the office of Preacher, and the Teachers
of God's word, saying that through these have come all sorts of contention
into the world. Whenever they meet together the one or the other reads
something to them.
By 1658, Friends migrated towards the western end of Long Island. Stuyvesant
naturally persecuted them, at times to the extreme. In early 1658, John
Tilton, the town clerk was called to account for entertaining a Quakeress - a female
preacher in his home. He pleaded that she was in his home while he was
absent; and with this excuse he was simply fined . About a year after Hodgson
s visit, two other Quakers came up from Virginia. Stuyvesant had them
arrested and taken to Staten Island. They escaped and went to Gravesend in an Indian
canoe; where according to their own testimony, “they found Friends in the
truth by whom they were refreshed. They also stated that meetings were held
at the home of Lady Moody who “managed all things with such prudence and
observance of time and place as to give no offense to any person of another
In 1659, the town had become known as a “Mecca of Quakerism.In 1661,
during one Quaker meeting in the town, Governor Stuyvesant sent his sheriff,
Waldron, to arrest the preacher, who managed to escape leaving only his cloak.
Samuel Spicer was fined 12 for the grievous offense of entertaining him.
There seems to have been no preacher in the colony as Gov. Stuyvesant appealed for
a minister “because the people led such Godless lives, on account of such
diversity of religious opinion among them. Living in Gravesend just before
her death, Lady Deborah Moody herself became a Quaker. Her son sold her house
and lot which he had inherited from her on her death and went to Virginia. For
sixteen years, it is said of her endearingly; “she went in and out among
the people. Lady Moody died between 4 Nov. 1658 and 11 May 1659 - probably
closer to the May date. The location of her burial is unclear - she was buried
in the town cemetery - her plot marked by a plain round fieldstone.
John Tilton and his wife were again arrested in 1661, and banished for
harboring Quakers. Tilton failed to depart; two years later he was called to account
for a similar offense. Sam Spicers mother was even arrested for trying to
entice a young girl into the faith.
Governor Peter Stuyvesant: (born c.1610, died February 1672) The fourth and
last director general of New Netherlands. A 44 year-old career military man, he
began at an early age and by 1632, was serving in the Dutch West India Compa
ny. Fighting the Portuguese at St. Martin in 1644, he lost a leg, replacing it
with a wooden peg ornamented with silver bands. Appointed by “the company
to head New Netherlands in 1646, he brought political and economic reform as
well as diplomatic success to the struggling colony. He was an unpopular
administrator; described as irascible, pompous, intolerant, and authoritarian. His
career came to an end when, after a surprise attack by an English naval force
in September 1664, he surrendered the colony without resistance. Today, the
name Stuyvesant is synonymous with New Netherlands. Dutch influence from this
period still exists. The Bowery, a street in New York City's lower Manhattan,
was named “bouwerie("farm") by early Dutch settlers because it led to
the farm of Gov. Peter Stuyvesant. Additionally, more famous is “Wall Street
; the name is taken from an old wall built across lower Manhattan Island, at
what was then the northernmost boundary of the city, in 1653, by Stuyvesant
to protect the Dutch colonists
Peter Stuyvesant served from 1646 to 1664. When he took over as Governor
General in 1647, he found a motley throng of bizarre flimflam men, in and about
New Amsterdam ??â‚??“pressed on by greedy Swedes. These Dutchmen at New
Netherlands were a hustling, greedy, law-defying bunch. He was a company-oriented man
and that was his declared purpose for being there. He worked for God and the
Company, and damned be his critics! This made for a constant state of friction
with the prominent men of New Netherlands. He answered protest by saying that
he received his power from God and the company, not the people. On democracy,
he answered that “the thief would vote “for the thief “ and“
the rogue for the rogue 4 Dec. 1653, Stuyvesant tells the colonys first
representative assembly, ??â‚??“We derive our authority from God and the Company,
not from a few ignorant subjects.
Previous Governors, Minuit and Kieft sought out advice from their councilors,
while Stuyvesant enjoyed their council only so long as it agreed with his
intentions. Kieft had also sought the advice from head of prominent families from
each of the surrounding villages. Stuyvesant, though he tried, had a hard
time ignoring this vocal group who often disagreed with him. Lady Moody however,
continued to enjoy his respect and friendship and, as with Kieft, he sought
her advice in several matters of public importance. The nomination of the three
town-magistrates was on one or two occasions entrusted by him to her.
In 1655, James Hubbard married Martha, his first wife, of whom virtually
nothing is known. Its assumed that she died as he later remarried. Further,
there are no records of any children from this union. As James was incarcerated
for one year beginning in April of that year, it can be assumed that this
marriage took place before early 1655.
Open Rebellion: The English settlements on Long Island continued to cause
Stuyvesant and his Dutch officials distress. The following entry in the colonial
record documents the Gravesend residents displeasure in the apparent
removal of Baxter and Hubbard from office by the Dutch:
“Whereas the inhabitants of Gravesend have repeatedly complained that no
order was kept there and the fences and palisades were not cared for, because
the former magistrates George Baxter and Sergeant Hubbard had for important
reasons been removed from office by the Director-General and council: (New
officers appointed) This done at Gravesend in the house of Lady Moody, the 23d of
November 1654. The reasons or circumstances of their removal are not given.
Discontented English settlers stewed over the years. They became increasingly
uncooperative in Colonial affairs, the situation becoming intolerable.
Stuyvesant was forced to agree in the Treaty of Hartford, that the English should
have all of Long Island, east of Oyster Bay, and retain their settlements of
Hempstead and Gravesend. This still was not good enough, and open rebellion broke
out in 1655.
On 9 March 1655 the Gravesend Englishmen, in open contempt of Dutch
authority, twisted the knife even further into the ribs of their Dutch lords. That day
James Grover, with Hubbard and Baxter raised St. Andrews banner at
Gravesend, and declared that land to be under the control of England. Stuyvesant with
advance knowledge of this outrage dispatched a company of soldiers with
orders for their arrest. The soldiers arrived in time to witness the event. This
incident is referred to in many accounts as “a short lived armed rebellion
against the Dutch Adam Mott, Nicolas Stillwell and others were also involved
and significant in this bold stand in the face of Dutch (Stuyvesants)
tyranny. There is however, no account of actual fighting or injury.
“. . . Baxter, who, on being suspended from his magistry, at Graveside,
had gone to New England, returned to Long Island, early the next year, and
spread reports that the Protector had ordered the governors of the New England
colonies to take the whole of that island from the Dutch, and by force, if
necessary. Fiscal Van Tienhoven was therefore sent, with Burgomaster Anthony, to the
English villages to quell the threatened disturbances. March 9 The
commissioners reached Gravesend just as Baxter, Hubbard and Grover were hoisting the
British flag, and reading a seditious paper, declaring that we, as freeborn
British subjects, claim and assume to ourselves the laws of our nation and
Republic of England over this place, as to our persons and property, in love and
harmony, according to the general peace between the two states in Europe and
this country. The chief traitors, Baxter and Hubbard were instantly arrested
and sent to the keep at Fort Amsterdam, where they remained imprisoned until
the next year.
Several of the inhabitants were induced by Baxter to sign a memorial praying
to Cromwell to take them under the protection of England, and emancipate them
from the dominion of the Dutch. The memorial was carried to London in [March
1656] by James Grover, who, with Baxter and Hubbard, had hoisted the English
colors at Gravesend the year before. To public treason Baxter now added private
dishonesty. Besides other debts, he owed two hundred guilders to the poor
fund; and his cattle were under seizure. These he secretly removed at night. His
defrauded creditors became clamorous; his farm and other effects were seized in
execution; and the bankrupt traitor fled to New England to work all the
mischief he could against New Netherlands.
Sergeant James Hubbard, Adam Mott and George Baxter (and perhaps others) were
captured and imprisoned in the jail at the base of Fort Amsterdam.
. . . the treacherous action of George Baxter and his accomplices has
startled us very much; . . . meanwhile you are strictly charged, to keep aforesaid
men in close and stringent containment, as it is required in so important a
case: we further recommend, that henceforth you dispense in the government of the
respective places there with such foreigners, who have no domicile in this
country, for little or no confidence can be placed upon them; hencewith etc etc
Your good friends
The Directors of the W. I. Company
Department of Amsterdam Aug. 13th 1655
Isaac van Beeck
“Whereas I the undersigned, George Baxter, at present imprisoned by the
Honorable Director General and Supreme Council of New Netherlands, am
graciously removed from my prison and detained in a room at the City Hall of this city
(although I am undeserving of such favor . . . .“
Grover managed to escape the Dutch and went first, to Boston, and later on to
England. In 1657 he returned with a letter from none other than the Lord
Protector, Oliver Cromwell, addressed to the English inhabitants on Long Island.
Baxter presented this document to the magistrates of Gravesend, “to be
opened and read.? But Stuyvesant had been forewarned of this, and he sent the
“Honorable, Dear. Faithful, the Schout and Magistrates of the village of
Gravesend We received quite late your information that one James Grover had
come there with a letter from the Lord Protector to the English inhabitants on
Long Island. The Indians and English inhabitants outside of our jurisdiction and
Government can take and read them to their people, but we are unable to
understand how any letters from any foreign Prince of Potentate can be accepted
within our Government by subjects under oath and obedience to us. Therefore you
are hereby requested , and at the same time authorized to send said James
Grover, with his letters to us in order to exhibit to us in our Council what
writing he has for our subjects. Awaiting which, after cordial greeting, we shall
commend you to God's protection, and remain, Honorable, Dear, Faithful, Your
affectionate friends. The Director and Council of New Netherlands.
Grover was not anxious to see Stuyvesant, especially after hearing of the
imprisonment of Hubbard, Mott and Baxter. He made his second escape, leaving the
letter with his friends in Gravesend. They sent it unopened to New Amsterdam.
Stuyvesant, suspecting that the English had petitioned Cromwell for liberation
from the Dutch, sent the letter unopened to Amsterdam on the ship de Waegh.
Baxter and Hubbard, had now been nearly a year in the keep of Fort Amsterdam.
At the intercession of Sir Henry Moody and the Gravesend magistrates,
Stuyvesant released Hubbard, and transferred Baxter, upon bail, to the debtors
room at the courthouse until the Amsterdam Chamber should decide upon his case.
A few weeks later, the Englishman forfeited his bail and escaped to Gravesend
where he again began to plot against his former patrons. In 1657, an open
enemy of the Dutch, yet protected by the townspeople of Gravesend, James Grover
had a farm with six acres under cultivation where he continued to raise tobacco.
The flames of rebellion continued to be fanned. Stuyvesant had his hands full
and used harsh measures to rule as was his practice. John Tilton and his wife
Goodie, were banished from the colony for their heresies?. Additionally
the “upright? John Bowne, Quaker from Flushing, was sent to Holland to
be out on trial for his faith.
Sir Henry Moody negotiated with the Dutch and eventually Adam Mott and James
Hubbard were released from their 12 month imprisonment for their part of the
1655 rebellion, granted on condition of James??â‚?â„? promise of good behavior.
James Hubbard however, remained in constant conflict with the Dutch and continued
to seek severance from their rule. Many of the Gravesend men looked south to
the shores of what was later called New Jersey, seven miles across the narrows.
When, in 1663, the Dutch waged war with the Esopus tribe, James Grover busied
himself writing and visiting English towns on Long Island dissuading them
from assisting the Governor in his war with the Indians.
Looking For Change: The residents of the English villages on Long Island grew
steadily more restless under the Dutch. Several solutions were contemplated.
Joining in union with the northern colonies of Rhode Island or Connecticut was
talked of, and even some gestures in that direction were begun - but to no
avail. Many of the Gravesend men looked yearningly across the narrows towards
the Jersey coast, and the opportunities it presented. Subtle negotiations with
the Indians there, planted seeds for future treaties and deals. In 1655,
Richard Stout attempted to settle Middletown - an effort marred with Indian troubles
and eventual evacuation.
English residents became increasingly restless and talk of uniting with
Connecticut spread. Further, talk of an impending English incursion could be heard.
Word was that Charles of England was about to bestow upon his brother, the
Duke of York (Bloody James), the Dutch territories of New Netherlands. Captain
John Bowne through his father-in-law, Rev. Obidaih Holmes who enjoyed some very
close associations with important people in Rhode Island had advance
knowledge of this and made plans for the English arrival. Many doubted the
information, but the men of Gravesend were jolted into action. Bowne stirred up the men
and called for plans of action. A call for more than mere words was made and in
1663 several were deputized to “spy out the land and make definite
arrangements for definite action.
No doubt, the English residents saw this as an opportunity to get in an early
bid for lands, which would be opening up under an anticipated British
administration. Twenty men stepped forward headed by Captain John Bowne, boarded a
sloop and set out for an inspection tour of lands they hoped to purchase or
acquire through title from the Indians. Across the Bay they sailed up the Raritan
River, back along the northern shores of Monmouth and into the mouths of the
Matawan, Waycake, and Coopers Creeks, landing now and again to scout out
the land. Finally, they camped on Sandy Hook, where they explored both arms of
the Shrewsbury River. The movement of so large a group of Englishmen caught the
attention of the ever-suspicious Dutch.
On 6 December 1663, Stuyvesant dispatched an armed force of ten soldiers, two
sailors, and four officials of the government, on the Company “yacht,
to intercede in any illegal sale of lands without the blessing of the
Company.? On 7 December, they came to the mouth of the Raritan River where two
Indian (the “Southern Savages) houses stood.
The Indians told the Dutch that the English, numbering nineteen, had gone in
an open boat up the Raritan the day before. After following their movements
and weathering a “blow? the Dutch encountered the English. The Dutch later
reported they encountered; William Goulding, Randall Huet, Derrick (Richard)
Stout, James Hubbard, James Grover, Thomas Whitlock, Sergeant Richard Gibbons,
John Ruckman, Sam Spicer, a man named Kreupelbos, one from Flushing, two from
Jamaica, and some others they “did not know?. After landing at Sandy Hook
on 10 December, they reported that they saw the Englishmen“standing under
By the Dutch account the schout Charles Morgen and John Bowne came toward
them without arms and were asked, what business they had there.
“We came to trade, they responded.
To which the Dutch answered: ??â‚??“Why are you come in such numbers if you only
come to trade?
“The savages are rascals and cannot be trusted, therefore we are in such
They told the Dutchmen they had heard that they had come to buy land from the
savages to which the Englishmen replied: “We only go to look at it.
The Gravesend men were reminded: “They should not undertake to buy any
land from the savages as it has been mostly been bought from the Dutch already.
At which John Bowne answered: “Under what government do you consider us to
“That here was the reply.
Bowne retorted: “Why may we not go to look for land just as well as you
Again they were reminded: “They must not undertake to buy land from the
savages unless they had proper permission from the Director-General and Council
?It is well Bowne said
“You are a band of traitors and are against the government of the state.
“Your Government countered Bowne folding his arms across his chest and
adding, “It shall be well.”
The Dutch force retreated to Manhattan, and the Englishmen continued making
their plans. Within a year the English would return and take control of the
former Dutch colony .
From 1665-1667, the British and Dutch fought an indecisive trade war, The
time was right for an English move towards seizing the Dutch colony with its
fine harbor and access to the trade rich Hudson River valley. England's
restored Charles II gave Dutch America to his brother and authorized a fleet to
capture it. Governor Winthrop came over from Connecticut to New Amsterdam on
the request of Colonel Nicolls, and entered into negotiations with Peter
Stuyvesant. After a stopover in Boston, the four frigates proceeded to New
Netherlands, under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls, and accompanied by three
other commissioners of the King.
On August 18th, 1664, they anchored off of Gravesend Bay, not far from Coney
Island, and a letter was sent to Stuyvesant demanding his surrender.
Stuyvesant was in a rage, and asked for three days to consider and discuss the
situation with his burgomasters. Nicolls agreed and after unloading his troops at
Gravesend, moved the ships with a thousand soldiers aboard; two training their
guns on the fort while a third anchored at Nut Island (Governors Island). The
troops encamped there. The men who unloaded at Gravesend were shortly joined by
horse and foot soldiers from other Long Island towns, making their way to the
ferry (connecting Breucklen with New Amsterdam). There were in all, an
additional 1,000 men from Long Island and Connecticut to bolster the fleet soldiers.
Greatly outnumbered with only about 150 soldiers to defend the Dutch fort, and
with little powder or ammunition, the peg-legged Governor Stuyvesant had no
choice but to capitulate. On 27 August, 1664, Stuyvesant surrendered 33
settlements and an entire colony under his control without a shot being fired.
New Netherlands, occupied by the Dutch since 1624, became English, and New
Amsterdam was renamed New York. New Jersey, sparsely settled by the Dutch,
Swedes, and others, was also part of this English claim. Its proprietors divided it
into East and West Jersey in 1676, but the colony was reunited as a royal
province in 1702.
Under the British: The new English Governor, Nicolls, wasted no time in
granting permission for the Gravesend men and others to settle the lands located
across the narrows in Monmouth.
“Upon the request of Wm Goulding, James Grover and John Browne [Bowne], on
behalf of them and their associates, I do hereby authorize them to treat and
conclude with the several sachems of the Nevisans or any others concerned
about the purchase of a parsel of land lying and being on the maine, extending
from Chawgoranis, near the mouth of the Raritan River, unto Pontohecke. For the
doing whereof this shall be their warrant. Given under my hand at Fort James,
in New York, on Manhattan Island, the 17th day of October 1664.
In anticipation of this permission these men secured a deed from Papomora,
Chief of the Indians in the Monmouth area;
Papomora, Chief of ye Indians,
James Hubbard, John Bowne,
John Tilton, Jr., Richard Stout,
William Goulding and
Samuel Spicer. Jan 25 1664
They immediately set out to settle Middletown, Shrewsbury, Portland Point; as
well as a scattering of plantations. In the spring or early summer of 1664,
Captain John Bowne, Richard Stout, James Grover and Richard Gibbons located
themselves near the site of the present Middletown village, and began to erect
houses for shelter and protection of their families which were moved in as soon
as the buildings were completed. By the spring of 1665, these four families
were comfortably and permanently seated there. These were Monmouths first
By now, it was obvious to the Indian leaders that the white man was there to
stay and moved out of the grantees areas. Several other deeds were negotiated
with the Indians of Monmouth, granting lands to the encroaching Englishmen.
Taplawappammund, Mattamahickanick, and
Yawpochammund, Kackenham, also Mattanoh,
Norchon and Qurrmeck, To
John Tilton, Samuel Spicer, William Goulding,
Richard Gibbons, James Grover and Richard Stout
April 7, 1665
Manavendo, Emmerdesolsee, Pappomera,
Checawsmm, Shanhemun, Cramanscun,
Winegermeca, Macca meca To
James Grover, John Bowne, Richard Stout,
John Tilton, Richard Gibbons, William Goulding,
Samuel Spicer, and the rest of the company.
June 5, 1665
James, continued to remain active in local government, sat as a member on the
local court and as a Justice performed several marriages:
- October 26, 1665, James Hubbard, Justice, married Samuel Holmes (son of
Holmes) to Alice Stillwell, daughter of Nicolas and Ann Stillwell.
- March 17, 1669, James is listed as one of three Justices on the court of
Sessions held at Gravesend
- December 21,1676, “Capt. Hubbard's as a justice in court.
- June 19,1677, Mr. Hubbard sat as Justice of the Peace at Gravesend
- December 18,1678, Capt. Hubbard was a defendant in a land dispute with
On 29 Dec. 1664, a marriage license was granted to James Hubbart and
Elizabeth Bayly (Elizabeth Baylis, born about 1646, died after 1682) and on the 31st,
Sergeant James Hubbard was married, by a magistrate. This was his second
marriage. Their children were:
James, 10 Dec. 1665
Rebecca, 28 Aug. 1667
Elizabeth, born 3 Jun. 1669
John, born 20 Mar 1670
Elias, born 11 APR 1673
Hannah, born ?
Samuel, born 2 May 1676
The important business of establishing a colony under English administration
began. The towns all sent Deputies to attend what became known as the
Hempstead Convention of 1665. Gravesend sent James Hubbard and Richard Dowe.
Contemporary writing is critical of Stuyvesant, and more so of Kieft's
administration of the colony. However, the English administration had it's own problems.
In 1670, the governor and council proposed an ridicules tax to be imposed to
repair the fort. Opposition was viscous. Flushing, Hempstead and Jamaica, send
their messages of protest to the court of sessions (sitting at Gravesend at
the time) denouncing them as “false, scandalous, illegal and seditious.
Further, ordering that they be openly and publicly burned before the town house
in New York.
In 1672, the villages on the far eastern end of Long Island, so uncontent
with New York rule asked the Privy Council in England to be annexed by
Connecticut; or, if that was not possible, to be allowed to form their own colony.
Connecticut was warned to stop encouraging and supporting these rebellious people.
“Convened at Hempstead by Governor Richard Nicolls, February 28th 1665,
the first governor of New York under the English dominion, and successor of the
famous governor Peter Stuyvesant, the last Dutch Governor.
August 1673 - a Dutch fleet appeared off Staten Is. New Jersey became part of
New Netherlands again. The Dutch retook New York in 1673, but it was
permanently restored to England the following year by the Treaty of Westminster. It
is no surprise that at first Nicolls administration was authoritarian - a
military government. Not only were the former inhabitants accustomed to this but
once again England and Holland were at war (1665-1667) until the treaty of
Breda formally awarded New York to the English.
There were five years of relative peace until the third Anglo-Dutch war broke
out, during which the Dutch recaptured the territory on 30 July 1673; holding
it a little over a year until their second surrender, 31 October 1674.
In 1692 or 1693 James died. “In his old age he came to Monmouth to die,
and here in 1692, he was buried“ Thus ended the life of a pilgrim, pioneer
and town servant.